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A

MAZE

IN

ZAZAZA ENTER AZAZAZ

AZAZAZAZAZAZAZZAZAZAZAZAZAZA

ZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZ

THE

MAGICALALPHABET

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262625242322212019181716151413121110987654321

 

 

26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
=
9
=
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARIO AND THE MAGICIANS

THOMAS MANN

1875 - 1955

18

THE

TABLES OF THE LAW

Page 289

"...WITH A HANDFUL OF THESE SIGNS ALL THE WORDS

OF ALL THE LANGUAGES OF ALL THE PEOPLE

COULD, IF NEED BE, BE WRITTEN,..."

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

.....

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

A

HISTORY OF GOD

Karen Armstrong 1993

The God of the Mystics

Page 250

"Perhaps the most famous of the early Jewish mystical texts is the fifth century Sefer Yezirah (The Book of Creation). There is no attempt to describe the creative process realistically; the account is unashamedly symbolic and shows God creating the world by means of language as though he were writing a book. But language has been entirely transformed and the message of creation is no longer clear. Each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is given a numerical value; by combining the letters with the sacred numbers, rearranging them in endless configurations, the mystic weaned his mind away from the normal connotations of words."

Page 250

THERE IS NO ATTEMPT MADE TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS REALISTICALLY THE ACCOUNT

IS UNASHAMEDLY SYMBOLIC AND SHOWS GOD CREATING THE WORLD BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE AS

THOUGH HE WERE WRITING A BOOK. BUT LANGUAGE HAS BEEN ENTIRELY TRANSFORMED AND THE

MESSAGE OF CREATION IS NO LONGER CLEAR EACH LETTER OF THE HEBREW ALPHABET IS GIVEN

A NUMERICAL VALUE BY COMBINING THE LETTERS WITH THE SACRED NUMBERS REARRANGING

THEM IN ENDLESS CONFIGURATIONS THE MYSTIC WEANED THE MIND AWAY FROM THE NORMAL

CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

....

 

LIGHT AND LIFE

Lars Olof Bjorn 1976

Page 197

"By writing the 26 letters of the alphabet in a certain order one may put down almost any message (this book 'is written with the same letters' as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Winnie the Pooh, only the order of the letters differs). In the same way Nature is able to convey with her language how a cell and a whole organism is to be constructed and how it is to function. Nature has succeeded better than we humans; for the genetic code there is only one universal language which is the same in a man, a bean plant and a bacterium."

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

 

 

"FOR THE GENETIC CODE THERE IS ONLY ONE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE"

 

 

DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA

DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA

 

 

THE JESUS MYSTERIES

Timothy Freke & Peter Gandy

1999

Page 177

THE GOSPELS ARE ACTUALLY ANONYMOUS WORKS, IN WHICH EVERYTHING WITHOUT EXCEPTION, IS WRITTEN IN CAPITAL LETTERS, WITH NO PUNCTUATION OR SPACES BETWEEN WORDS.

 

 

CITY OF REVELATION

John Michell 1972

"The great alchemists, whose ultimate aspiration was to procure the birth of a divinity among men found it necessary first to invoke within themselves the spirit they wished to share with others. In the same tradition Plato wrote that the man who aquires the art of stereometry, the likening of unlike things which is function of the canon, sanctifies not only himself but also the city and the age in which he lives. The thought behind these various expressions was that the state of a society is determined by the individuals who comprise it; that the cosmic influences are manifest on earth through the medium of the human mind, and this is the instrument by which they may be controlled and held in balance. For the instument to be effective, it requires that the individual become aware of the current influences to which he is subject, and to this end the canon was devised; for by analogy with the dynamics of geometrical and numerological relationships, the world of phenomena is revealed as the product of archetyple forces, whose behaviour in any circumstances is predicatable once the nature is understood."

"the art of stereometry, the likening of unlike things"

 

THE ART OF STEREOMETRY

THE LIKENING OF UNLIKE THINGS

 

-
-
-
-
-
STEREOMETRY
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
55
-
11
STEREOMETRY
163
64
55
-
-
5+5
-
1+1
-
1+6+3
6+4
5+5
-
-
10
-
2
STEREOMETRY
10
10
10
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
-
-
1
-
2
STEREOMETRY
1
1
1

 

 

THE ART OF STEREOMETRY

 

-
-
-
-
-
STEREOMETRY
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
A
=
1
-
3
ART
39
12
3
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
S
=
1
-
11
STEREOMETRY
163
55
1
-
-
10
-
19
Add to Reduce
256
94
13
-
-
1+0
-
1+9
First Total
2+5+6
9+4
1+3
-
-
1
-
10
Reduce to Deduce
13
13
4
-
-
-
-
1+0
Second Total
1+3
1+3
-
-
-
1
-
1
Essence of Number
4
4
4

 

 

THE LIKENING OF UNLIKE THINGS

 

-
-
-
-
-
STEREOMETRY
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
L
=
3
-
8
LIKENING
81
45
9
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
U
=
3
-
6
UNLIKE
72
27
9
T
=
2
-
6
THINGS
77
32
5
-
-
16
-
25
Add to Reduce
284
131
32
-
-
1+6
-
2+5
First Total
2+8+4
1+3+1
3+2
-
-
7
-
7
Reduce to Deduce
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
Second Total
1+4
-
-
-
-
7
-
7
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
STEREOMETRY
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
3
ART
39
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
11
STEREOMETRY
163
55
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
L
=
3
-
8
LIKENING
81
45
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
6
UNLIKE
72
27
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
6
THINGS
77
32
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
-
44
Add to Reduce
540
225
45
-
1
2
9
4
5
12
7
8
18
-
-
2+6
-
4+4
Reduce to Deduce
5+4+0
2+2+5
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2
-
-
1+8
-
-
8
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
9
4
5
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
STEREOMETRY
-
-
-
-
1
3
5
6
9
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
6
-
A
=
1
-
3
ART
39
12
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
11
STEREOMETRY
163
55
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
6
-
L
=
3
-
8
LIKENING
81
45
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
6
UNLIKE
72
27
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
6
THINGS
77
32
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
26
-
44
Add to Reduce
540
225
45
-
1
9
5
12
18
-
-
2+6
-
4+4
Reduce to Deduce
5+4+0
2+2+5
4+5
-
-
-
-
1+2
1+8
-
-
8
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
9
5
3
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
STEREOMETRY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
STERO R METRY
-
-
-
R
=
9
-
3
RESTORE
100
37
1
M
=
4
-
2
ME
18
9
9
T
=
2
-
6
TRY
63
18
9
-
-
15
-
11
Add to Reduce
181
64
19
-
-
1+5
-
1+1
First Total
1+8+1
6+4
1+9
-
-
6
-
2
Reduce to Deduce
10
10
10
-
-
-
-
-
Second Total
1+0
1+0
1+0
-
-
6
-
2
Essence of Number
1
1
1

 

 

THIS IS THE SCENE OF THE SCENE UNSEEN

THE UNSEEN SEEN OF THE SCENE UNSEEN THIS IS THE SCENE

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
6
MATTER
77
23
5
15
Add to Reduce
171
72
18
1+5
Reduce to Deduce
1+7+1
7+2
1+8
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

HOLY BIBLE

REVELATION

C 13 V 16

13

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

16

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches.

I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

 

 

HOLY BIBLE

REVELATION

C 13 V 16

I

AM ALPHA AND OMEGA THE BEGINNING AND THE END THE FIRST AND THE LAST

I

AM

THE ROOT AND OFF SPRING OF DAVID AND THE BRIGHT AND MORNING STAR

 

 

THE DIVINE COMEDY

OF

DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265-1321)

THE FLORENTINE

CANTICA I

HELL

(L'INFERNO)

INTRODUCTION

Page 9

"Midway this way of life we're bound upon

I woke to find myself in a dark wood,

Where the right road was wholly lost and gone."

 

M
=
4
-
6
MIDWAY
75
30
3
T
=
2
-
4
THIS
56
20
2
W
=
5
-
3
WAY
49
13
4
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
L
=
3
-
4
LIFE
32
23
5
W
=
5
-
4
WE'RE
51
24
6
B
=
2
-
5
BOUND
56
20
2
U
=
3
-
4
UPON
66
21
3
-
-
30
-
32
-
406
163
28
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
W
=
5
-
4
WOKE
54
18
9
T
=
2
-
2
TO
35
8
8
F
=
6
-
4
FIND
33
24
6
M
=
4
-
6
MYSELF
80
26
8
I
=
9
-
2
IN
23
14
5
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
D
=
4
-
4
DARK
34
16
7
W
=
5
-
4
WOOD
57
21
3
-
-
45
-
28
-
326
137
56
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
W
=
5
-
5
WHERE
59
32
5
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
R
=
9
-
5
RIGHT
62
35
8
R
=
9
-
4
ROAD
38
20
2
W
=
5
-
3
WAS
43
7
7
W
=
5
-
6
WHOLLY
95
32
5
L
=
3
-
4
LOST
66
12
3
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
G
=
7
-
4
GONE
41
23
5
-
-
46
-
37
-
456
186
42
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
121
-
97
First Total
1188
486
126
-
-
1+2+1
-
9+7
Add to Reduce
1+1+8+8
4+8+6
1+2+6
Q
-
4
-
16
Second Total
18
18
9
-
-
-
-
1+6
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
1+8
-
-
-
4
-
7
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

THE DIVINE COMEDY

OF

DANTE ALIGHIERI (1265-1321)

THE FLORENTINE

CANTICA I

HELL

(L'INFERNO)

INTRODUCTION

Page 9

"Power failed high fantasy here; yet, swift to move

Even as a wheel moves equal, free from jars,

Already my heart and will were wheeled by love,

The Love that moves the sun and other stars."

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
G
=
7
-
3
GOD
26
17
8
M
=
4
-
4
MIND
40
22
4
-
-
13
-
10
First Total
99
54
18
-
-
1+3
-
1+0
Add to Reduce
9+9
5+4
1+8
-
-
4
-
1
Second Total
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
6
DIVINE
63
36
9
9
DIMENSION
102
48
3
18
First Total
198
99
18
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+9+8
9+9
1+8
9
Second Total
18
18
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
1+8
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
M
=
4
-
10
MYSTERIOUS
164
47
2
V
=
4
-
5
VOICE
54
27
9
I
=
I
-
2
IN
23
14
5
T
=
3
-
3
THE
33
15
6
N
=
5
-
5
NIGHT
58
31
4
-
-
18
-
26
-
333
135
27
-
-
1+8
-
2+6
-
3+3+3
1+3+5
2+7
-
-
9
-
8
-
9
9
9

 


Mysteries of the snowflake: The curious world of ... - The Independent

www.independent.co.uk › News › Environment › Nature?

5 Jan 2013 - Mysteries of the snowflake: The curious world of the ice-crystal experts ...

The ice crystals, nestling in the ice clouds as unborn snowflakes, ...

 


THE INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE

Wednesday 11 September 2013

Mysteries of the snowflake: The curious world of the ice-crystal experts.

Everybody loves snow, right? But not many of us are obsessed, like the scientists who study these icy enigmas. Nicola Gill enters the curious world of 'dendrites' and 'plates'

Dr Chris Westbrook works in deepest Hampshire at the Chilbolton Observatory, home to the world’s largest steerable radar dish, at a whopping 25 metres across. Inside his laboratory, lights blink and instruments receive continuous feedback from the giant dish pointed skywards and looming ever-present outside the window.

But even on the hottest summer day, while the other denizens of Chilbolton parish are enjoying Pimm’s on their sun-loungers, Dr Westbrook is buried deep in snowflakes. “The radar dish sends out microwave pulses into ice clouds high up in the atmosphere where the temperature is always well below freezing – whatever it is down here,” he says. The ice crystals, nestling in the ice clouds as unborn snowflakes, bounce those microwaves back and the echoes which return are pored over and analysed by Dr Westbrook and his team.

“"We have the most sensitive equipment for studying ice clouds in the world," he says. Westbrook is one of just a tiny handful of snowflake researchers in the world, a group of obsessives who live and breathe snow – fixated on chasing the perfect flake and understanding exactly which weather conditions will produce the many different formations. “It may seem slightly odd that I’ve devoted myself to studying snowflakes when the UK isn’t renowned as an especially snowy place,” he continues, “but, in fact, the vast majority of precipitation in this country starts as snow, which melts high above us and then falls as rain, which we certainly do have a lot of. So if you want to predict precipitation you need to study snow and how it forms.”

So far, so dispassionate; ask Dr Westbrook if he likes making snowmen and he rather frostily replies that he’s as keen as the next man (“but I have a degree in physics and electrical engineering and where others see a winter wonderland I see physics in action”). But ask him about the way snowflakes are formed and fall to earth and the amazed child inside emerges as he describes the physics-meets-fairytale element of his work.

“The aerodynamics of snowflakes have an inherently mysterious quality we’ve yet to crack,” he enthuses. “We classify their falling style in four unique ways: the ‘tumble’ is a sort of head-over-heels action, the ‘spin’ is a vertical downwards motion with a built-in rotation, the ‘pitch and glide’ is best described as a zig-zag and the ‘twirl’ is how we describe a snowflake that’s descending while spinning and rotating at an angle. Which they do depends on how fast they fall and their size, but it’s a puzzle that’s not solved and we don’t know why they behave as they do all of the time. As for the intricate formations of individual flakes, I defy anyone not to be amazed.”

Of course, it’s those spectacular shapes – some like icy fireworks caught mid-explosion, others frozen, fantastical many-armed sea creatures – that fascinate the rest of us non-scientists. Nearly all snowflakes (or snow crystals as scientists insist on calling them, as a large flake can actually be made up of several crystals that clump together on their drift earthwards) have six-sided symmetry, though three- or 12-sided crystals also fall. You will never see a snow crystal with four, five or eight sides. It was ancient Chinese scholars who first noted their sixfold symmetry and they made beautiful complex categories and charts detailing their infinite variety and grouping them into types; as no two snowflakes can ever be identical.

Broadly speaking (there are several competing classification systems), the classic, celebrated Christmas-card snowflake is categorised as a dendrite (meaning tree-like, with branches and side-branches). These are the iconic superstars of the snowflake world, hogging all the glory and most of the photo-opportunities. They can be sub-categorised as stellar, radiating or fern-like. As if winning the beauty contest weren’t enough, dendrites’ supermodel qualities (they can be extremely thin and light) also mean they make the best powder snow for skiing.

Next in line, the supporting cast, are the plates (stellar, sectored or split) with 12-sided flakes bringing up the rear. The ugly sisters, which in reality make up the vast majority of snowflakes, are the rather dull, hollow and capped columns, needles, simple prisms, bullet rosettes and asymmetrical specks, doomed forever to be the boring, bitty, non-showbiz flakes we brush off our sleeves with nary an “ooh” or an “aah”.

The categorisation of snowflakes has a long history. In 1655, Robert Hooke published a large volume called Micrographia, containing his sketches of snowflakes viewed for the first time under the new invention of the day, the microscope. American farmer, Wilson ‘Snowflake’ Bentley, devoted most of his life to capturing images of snow crystals and his famous book of that name is still in print to this day. Japanese physicist Ukichiro Nakaya created the first truly systemic classification scheme for snowflakes in 1934, in which he subdivided falling flakes into 41 individual types which meteorologists Magono and Lee almost doubled by producing a chart of 80 different types in 1966. Mathematician and philosopher René Descartes is one of many fine minds through the ages to be fascinated by snowflakes and to ponder how such perfection could be created.

While every flake really is a law unto itself, other supposed snow ‘facts’ are not quite so true. The oft-quoted idea that it’s ‘too cold to snow’ is nonsense (it snows at the South Pole where it’s rarely above -40C), and even the apparent truism that snow is white turns out to be slushy logic. Ice crystals are clear, like glass, but when they form a large pile, light is reflected off the surface, bounces around and eventually scatters back out. Since all colours are scattered roughly equally, snow only appears to be white.

These, and many other reasons, are why world-renowned snowflake obsessive, California-based Ken Libbrecht, has made it his life’s work to study, photograph and ‘grow’ snowflakes. The author of several beautiful books showcasing his favourite flakes out of the 7,000 he has photographed, he lives and breathes dendrites, rosettes and plates. “There is something magical about snowflakes,” he says from his laboratory in Pasadena. “You don’t often see such complex symmetry in nature and that makes them extraordinary. The whole intriguing structure of a snow crystal simply arises quite literally out of thin air, as it tumbles through the clouds. The way the crystal grows depends on the temperature it is shaped in – a simple enough idea to grasp – but the underlying physics is fiendishly complicated and has remained a puzzle. I spend a lot, and I mean a lot, of time thinking about this.”

As Libbrecht explains, the life of a snowflake is a hidden, epic, scientific journey in which it transforms through liquid, gas and solid states. “Snowflakes begin life as water vapour in the air – evaporated from oceans, plants, even your breath – and when air cools down at some point the water vapour will condense out. Near the ground it could, for example, be as dew, but higher up it condenses on to airborne dust particles into countless minute droplets. A cloud is just a huge collection of these water droplets suspended in the atmosphere.”

The next stage is where it gets exciting, say Libbrecht. Depending on conditions, these droplets could fall as dreary rain, sleet or hail, or descend as mist or fog. But when conditions are right, the alchemy occurs and these minute droplets metamorphise into something more impressive. “At around -10C, the droplets gradually freeze into minuscule particles of ice,” he says. “When humidity is high enough, water vapour condenses on to its surface, gradually building a snowflake. At first they are very small and mostly in the form of simple, hexagonal prisms – but as they grow, the branches sprout from the corners to make ever more complicated shapes.”

By growing crystals in his lab, Libbrecht has learnt how the multitudes of varying shapes depend almost entirely on the temperature and humidity. For example, thin plates and stars grow around -2C, while columns and slender needles appear near -5C. Plates and stars form around -15C and a combination of plates and columns are made at around -30C.

Libbrecht’s devotion to dendrites has led him halfway around the world and he thinks nothing of basing holidays with his wife and two children exclusively around snowflake sightseeing. On one trip, he took his young children to Japan, where snowflakes are virtually a national craze. “Snow-crystal tourist spots are popular with the Japanese and I flew my family over for a winter holiday to the northern island of Hokkaido, home to the Museum of Snow and Ice, where even the doorknobs are in the shape of snowflakes. Admittedly, it’s not your usual family getaway, but my children know all about capped columns and other snowflake forms. They’re both in college now, but my daughter definitely gets a kick out of telling friends her dad is a snowflake scientist.”

At dinner parties, when asked what he does, Libbrecht says, “I like to lead with the science,” but admits that people are really only interested in his photographs and the pretty patterns of individual flakes, and unlikely to want to hear about the convection chamber where he conjures snowflakes into existence. “Basically, it’s just a cold chamber about a metre tall, with two containers of heated water on the bottom. Convection mixes the water vapour into the cold air creating super-saturated conditions for growing snowflakes. We nucleate crystals by dropping a speck of dry ice in the chamber and the crystals float until they grow to about 10-100 microns in size, when they fall to the bottom of the chamber.”

Inevitably, though, the most common question is, how can Libbrecht be so sure no two snowflakes are ever identical? He likes to tell people that physics has a Zen-like answer, “which is that it depends largely on what you mean by the question. The short answer is that if you consider there’s over a trillion ways you could arrange 15 different books on your bookshelf, then the number of ways of making a complex snowflake is so staggeringly large that, over the history of our planet, I’m confident no two identical flakes have ever fallen. The long answer is more involved – depending on what you mean by ‘alike’ and ‘snowflake’. There could be some extremely small, simple-shaped crystals that looked so alike under a microscope as to be indistinguishable – and if you sifted through enough Arctic snow, where these simple crystals are common, you could probably find a few twins.”

If you thought snowflakes were the ultimate in nature’s micro-level majesty, ice crystals have one more trick up their sleeve, one that almost none of us will ever see, unless we find ourselves at the South Pole. Ice crystal halos are produced in the same way as rainbows, except that the sunlight (or moonlight) refracts from ice crystals instead of water. In other words, instead of being rainbows, they are ‘snowbows’, and, says Libbrecht, “simply exquisite”.

Does he ever wonder, staring for years on end at the so-far-impenetrable and wondrous beauty of his subjects, if only a higher hand could have made them? “No,” he says bluntly, the scientist firmly back at the helm. Of course there’s still one obvious question that always come up before pudding that he’s more than happy to elaborate on. Why does he do it?

“Humans usually make a thing by starting with a block of material and carving from it,” says Libbrecht. “Computers, for example, are made by patterning intricate circuits on silicon wafers, but in nature things simply assemble themselves. Cells grow and divide, forming complex organisms. Even extremely sophisticated computers like your brain arise from self-assembly. Your DNA does not contain nearly enough information to guide the placement of every cell in your body, most of that structure arises spontaneously as you grow.”

The snowflake is a very simple example of self-assembly. “There is no blueprint or genetic code that guides the growth of a snowflake, yet marvellously complex structures appear, quite literally out of thin air.” As the electronics industry pushes toward ever smaller devices, it is likely that self-assembly will play an increasingly important role in manufacturing, and Libbrecht’s work could contribute to that. But neither he nor Westbrook care much about that, they just revel in the joy of unravelling the tantalising mystery of snowflakes.

“Einstein didn’t worry about the practical applications of relativity, he just wanted to understand how nature worked. Snowflakes are remarkable structures that simply fall from the sky. With over six billion people on the planet, surely a few of us can be spared to ponder the subtle mysteries of snowflakes.”

 

 

THE INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE

Wednesday 11 September 2013

Mysteries of the snowflake: The curious world of the ice-crystal experts.

Inevitably, though, the most common question is, how can Libbrecht be so sure no two snowflakes are ever identical? He likes to tell people that physics has a Zen-like answer, “which is that it depends largely on what you mean by the question. The short answer is that if you consider there’s over a trillion ways you could arrange 15 different books on your bookshelf, then the number of ways of making a complex snowflake is so staggeringly large that, over the history of our planet, I’m confident no two identical flakes have ever fallen. The long answer is more involved – depending on what you mean by ‘alike’ and ‘snowflake’. There could be some extremely small, simple-shaped crystals that looked so alike under a microscope as to be indistinguishable – and if you sifted through enough Arctic snow, where these simple crystals are common, you could probably find a few twins.”

"The short answer is that if you consider there’s over a trillion ways you could arrange 15 different books on your bookshelf,"

 

 

Daily Mail, Friday, May 15, 2015

Page 45

Coffeebreak

THE STRIP SHOW

HOW THE 99 WAS INVENTED

 

 

Daily Mail, Thursday, April 30, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 72

QUESTION Who first decided that people have rights, and when was it?

SOME scholars argue that conceptions of rights can be found in almost all societies in all times. Micheline Ishay's The History Of Human Rights begins with `contributions' from Hammurabi's Code of ancient Babylon, the three major world religions, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Epictetus and Stoicism in general, and of such medieval thinkers as Thomas Aquinas. English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote of 'rights' in his seminal work Leviathan (1651). In it, he says that in the 'state of nature' (a state with no government nor social organisation), a person has the right to do anything to preserve his life.
This is a weaker conception of rights than our everyday one, but it was the first use of the term 'rights' in relation to moral correctness. The term was derived from the Old English riht (good, fair, proper, fitting or straight; ultimately from the Latin rectus meaning `straight').
In his Second Treatise Of Government (1690), John Locke (1632-1704) gave a definition which argued that man is created with rights to life, liberty and property, and that these rights are not given up by the 'social contract' involved in entering into society.
A legitimate state must protect these rights, he said. Locke's work inspired the English Bill of Rights of 1689 enshrining rights to life, liberty and property.

Caroline Turner, Cheltenham, Glos

 

 

Daily Mail, Thursday, January 8, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 61

QUESTION Which Is Europe's oldest living language?

HISTORICAL linguists are confronted by two obstacles. First, all languages evolve over time. so they are not the same today as when originally spoken. Second, since many ancient languages were used long before writing evolved, it is not possible to say with confidence when they first appeared.

It would be correct for example to say that Greek has been spoken for at least 34 centuries; but it was first written down in 1400 BC and a Greek speaker today would struggle to understand the earliest archaic forms of the language. Similarly, modern Welsh speakers would find some Old Welsh Words difficult.
They would struggle with Archaic Welsh (550 to 800 AD) and most would be unable to read a text in Common Brittonic, the ,ancient Celtic language of Britain, or its `even older ancestor, Proto-Celtic.

One view is that Euskara, the Basque language, is the oldest. However, almost nothing definite is known of its origins and its reconstructed predecessor (Proto Basque) is significantly different in vocabulary to the modern language.

It is conjectured there was a pre-Proto Basque in the 7th century BC, again using a radically different word structure.

Modern Euskara was first recorded in 1000 AD. Suggestions that its origins can be traced back to Palaeolithic times should be taken with a pinch of salt.

Claims have been made for Albanian, but this is based on its supposed evolution from an extinct Paleo-Balkan language linked to Dacian, Thracian and Illyrian. Albanian as it is spoken today can be traced back only to 1285 AD.

Another ancient language is Romani Chib or Romani, a form of Sanskrit spoken in central and northern India. Though the Romani people moved from India into Europe in 1000 AD, Sanskrit can be traced back 6,000 years.

It has been said that all European languages are equally old, since they gradually developed from the first prehistoric ancestral languages.

 

 

Daily Mail,Wednesday, January 7, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 45

QUESTION Was Dr Faustus based on a real person?

THE legend of Faust, a scholar who sells his soul to the Devil to gain infinite knowledge, youth and the pleasures of the flesh, is loosely woven around various medieval alchemists. But the name itself comes from a real source, Dr Johann Georg Faust, a German magician who lived around 1480 to 1540.

Faust was probably born in Knittlinger in Wurttemberg, and his activities are first mentioned in a 1507 letter from German polymath Johannes Trithemius to astrologer Johannes Virdung. In it he warned of the nefarious practices of a magician styling himself `Georgius Sabellicus, Faustus, fons necromanticorum, astrologus, magus secundus, etc'.

According to Trithemius, in Selnhausen and Wurzburg, Sabellicus had blasphemously boasted that he could reproduce all the miracles of Christ.

Some sources say. Faust gained a degree in divinity from Heidelberg University in 1509, others that he gained a degree in magic (an accepted degree at the time) at Krakow. He next appears at Erfurt University in Central Germany.

In 1513, German humanist Konrad Mutianus Rufus (1470-1526) recounts an encounter with a Georgius Faustus, Helmitheus Heidelbergensis (`demigod of Heidelberg'), having overheard him in an Erfurt inn boasting that he could conjure up Homer's heroes for his students.

On February 23, 1520, Faust was in Bamberg casting a horoscope for the bishop and the town, for which he received ten gulden. But he was banished from Ingolstadt in 1528 and, according to an unflattering note made by the junior mayor of the city to 'deny free passage to the great necromancer and sodomite Doctor Faustus', ejected from Nuremberg in 1532.

Later records give a more positive view. Physician Philipp Begardi of Worms writing in his Index Sanitatis in 1539, says Faust is `highly renowned for his great skill, not alone in medicine, but also in chiromancy, necromancy, physiognomy, visions in crystal -and the like other arts.' Faust allegedly died in an alchemical accident in the Hotel zum LOwen in Staufen im Breisgau in about 1540.

His body is said to have been found in a `grievously mutilated' state and his clerical and scholarly enemies claimed the Devil had come to collect his servant.

Theologian Johann Gast, in his Sermones Conviviales (1558), wrote: 'The wretch came to an end in a terrible manner; for the Devil strangled him. His dead body lay constantly on its face on the bier, although it had been turned five times upwards.'

Faust's posthumous fame is derived from the Faustbuch, the collected tales of medieval magicians such as Merlin, Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon, anonymously published in 1587.

The Faustbuch was translated throughout Europe and an English translation (1592) inspired Christopher Marlowe's play The Tragicall History Of Dr Faustus (published in 1604, 11 years after Marlowe's death) and later Goethe's play Faust, which was published in two parts between 1803 and 1833, firmly cementing the legend in the public imagination

Opera version: The Damnation Of Faust (illustration omitted)

Andrew C. Browning, Guildford, Surrey

 

 

Daily Mail, Thursday, January 22, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 64

QUESTION Was Dr Faustus based on a real person?

FURTHER to the earlier answer, the Faust theme, and Mephistopheles in particular, held a fascination for the composers of the Romantic era: on the latter, we have Boito's opera Mefistofele (1868), Liszt's Four Mephisto Waltzes based on two Faust episodes by the Austrian aristocratic poet Nikolaus Lenau, the first waltz — like number two, originally written for orchestra — being the most popular, and Liszt's Faust Symphony (1854-57).

In German-speaking countries, Gounod's opera Faust (1859) is known as Margarethe, the tragic figure of Marguerite in the French version.

She was immortalised in Schubert's first successful lied Gretchen am Spinnrade (Gretchen at the spinning wheel) op.2, composed in 1814 when the composer was aged just 17.

Berlioz composed his legende dramatique, The Damnation Of Faust, for four solo voices, full seven-part chorus, large children's chorus and orchestra and it was first performed in 1846.

For the violinists- among Faust fans there is a Fantasy for violin and piano by Spanish virtuoso Pablo de Sarasate, of Zigeunerweisen fame.

Among other Romantic composers contributing to the Faust theme are Spohr and Schumann.

E. Felix Schoendorfer, Stoke Poges, Bucks.

 

 

Daily Mail, Thursday,May 14, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 59

QUESTION I understand that so me biologists
believe we all have more than 20 senses.What are they?

THE five traditionally recognised methods of perception — the senses of sound, sight, touch, smell and taste — were a medieval concept that still persists.
Today, scientists consider we have nine principal senses. The missing four are: Equilibrioception: the sense of balance. Having a sensory faculty for the perception of balance is essential for a bipedal species to stay upright while walking.
Thermoception: The sense of heat. This was thought to be a variation on the sense of touch, but it is different as heat can be sensed without touching an object.
Proprioception: The perception of one's body in space or the body's position.
Nociception: The sensation of pain, which was previously believed to be a variation of touch.
There are also various sub-senses: sight can be broken down into colour and light; taste into sweet, salty, sour and bitter; and thermoception into the perception of heat and cold.
The senses of hearing, smell, touch and pain, and equilibrioception and proprioception (known as the mechanoreceptors) are not subdivided.
However, there is another category known as interoreceptors, sensory receptors that detect stimulus within the body.
These include blood pressure, blood oxygen content, cerebrospinal fluid pH, plasma osmotic pressure, artery-brain blood glucose difference and lung inflation.
Using this system we do, indeed, have 21 senses.

M. P Singh„ Inverness.

 

 

Daily Mail, Thursday,May 14, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 55

Flagging up the positives

Symbolic South Korea fans wave their national flag at the 2002 football World Cup

(illustration omitted)

QUESTION What are the series of black lines surrounding
the blue and red 'yin and yang' circle of the South Korean flag?

THE South Korean flag was adopted on January 25, 1950, although it had been used as a de facto national flag since 1893.

It is called Taegeukki (Great Polarity), taking its name from the central emblem on the flag, the taegeuk circle. The flag comprises three parts: the white background, the red and blue circle and four groups of lines called trigrams (kwae, in Korean), one in each corner of the flag.

The white background signifies peace. The red and blue circle is the Taegeuk, the Taoist symbol of harmony and balance. The Taegeuk's blue part is called Eum or in Chinese, Yin (dark) and represents all negative aspects of the balance, while the red part is called Yang (bright) and describes the positive aspects.

The Taegeuk represents unity, bringing together the negative and the positive, while the Yin and Yang represent the duality. Examples of duality are heaven and hell, fire and water, or night and day.

Surrounding the circle are the trigrams, which are sets of broken and unbroken bars. Trigrams originate from an ancient Chinese text, the I Ching or Book Of Changes. At the outset, the Book Of Changes was a collection of linear signs to be used as oracles, but layers of philosophical meaning were added over time.

Oracles were very important in early Chinese culture; the most primitive confined themselves to the answers yes and no. This type of oracular pronouncement is the basis of the Book Of Changes. 'Yes' was represented by an unbroken line (—) and `No' by a broken line (— —).

We in the West tend to think, incorrectly, of yin and yang as strictly defined opposites. All relationships based on yin and yang are relative and the mutual interaction of both must be considered, so nothing can be defined as strictly yin or strictly yang.

Thus, the I Ching introduced layers of sophistication represented by the trigrams; groups of three lines, solid or broken that represent the maximum number of combi-
-nations of the Yin-I and the Yang-I in sets of three.

Their names are Ch'ien, Tui, Li, Chen, Sun, K'an, Ken, and K'un. These are frequently associated with natural objects: Heaven, Lake, Fire, Thunder, Wind, Water, Mountain and Earth respectively. The trigrams at the corners of the flag are heaven (upper-left; three solid bars), fire (bottom left corner; two solid bars with split middle bar), water (top right corner; two split bars with solid middle bar) and earth (bottom right; three split bars).

A still greater multiplicity is achieved in I Ching by combining the eight trigrams into hexagrams (six bars). Each of these 64 signs consists of six lines, either positive or negative, and represent a far more complex oracular system.

K. M. Mott, London N12.

 

 

Daily Mail, Tuesday,May 19, 2015

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 62

QUESTION Who Invented the compass?

THE compass appeared in China during the Han dynasty in the second to first century BC, but its purpose was not navigational: it was used in a particular type of fortune-telling called geomancy.
This is the art of throwing handfuls o small rocks, gravel and sand to see what sort of pattern they form when they land and then interpreting that pattern to foretell the future.

It was discovered that a form of magnetised rock called a lodestone, which is a form of the mineral magnetite, tended to align itself on a north-south axis.

This magnetic property was later incorporated into other fortune telling devices similar to Ouija boards. From this developed the idea of aligning your house in certain directions, the art we know as feng-shui.

It was later discovered that by stroking a piece of metal, perhaps a needle-like sliver, with a lodestone the magnetic properties would be transferred to the needle. When the needle is floated on the meniscus (concave curve on top of a liquid) in a bowl of water it will point north-south.

This is an experiment children still conduct in science classes and is the origin of the navigational compass.

There is a theory that in Mesoamerica, now Central America, the tribes used similar techniques as far back as 1000 BC, but this has not been verified.

The Chinese appear to have started to use a compass for navigation in the 9th or 10th centuries AD.

The skill of making magnetic compasses was transferred to Europe, probably by Arab traders, and starts to appear in the late 12th century, where they are recorded for the first time in the texts De utensilibus and De naturis rerum, written between 1187 and 1202.

It may have been about this time that the Norse were given credit for the use of compasses as an explanation for their apparent seafaring skills.

However, there is no proof they discovered _ the compass and their navigational prowess may have had more to do with their knowledge of the cosmos and the prevailing winds.

Bob Cubitt, Northampton.

 

 

UNCONDITIONAL LIFE  

MASTERING THE FORCES THAT SHAPE PERSONAL REALITY
 
Deepak Chopra 1991
 
A Mirage of Miracles

Page 89

"The Mask of Maya"
 
"...denoting the ability of gods to change form, to make worlds, to assume masks and disguises."
 
"Maya also means magic a show of illusions"
 

"Maya also denotes the delusion of thinking that you are seeing reality when in fact you are only seeing a layer of trick effects superimposed upon the real reality

True to its deceptive nature, Maya is full of paradoxes. First of all it is everywhere, even though it doesnt exist. It is / Page 90 / often compared with a desert mirage, yet unlike a mirage Maya does not merely float "out there" The Mysterious One is nowhere if not in each person. Finally Maya is not so omnipotent that we cannot control it - and that is the key point Maya is fearfull or diverting all powerful or completely impotent depending on your perspective."

"The fearfull illusion becomes a wonderful show if only you can manipulate it."

 

 

JOSEPH AND HIS BROTHERS
 
Thomas Mann
 
1875 1955

Page 314

THE DREAMER
 

"THE COAT OF MANY COLOURS"

 

 

RAINBOW RA-IN-BOW IN RA RAINBOW

 

C
=
3
-
4
COAT
39
12
3
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
M
=
4
-
4
MANY
53
17
8
C
=
3
-
7
COLOURS
103
31
4
-
-
16
-
16
Add to Reduce
216
72
18
-
-
1+6
-
1+6
Reduce to Deduce
2+1+6
7+2
1+8
-
-
7
-
7
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 
 

THE STARGATE CONSPIRACY

Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince

 
1
999  

Page328 

Apocalypse now
"The new belief system wears a coat of many colours"  
 
 
 
 

A COAT OF MANY COLOURS

Herbert Read 1945 

Page 57 

"The aim of the superrealists as Max Ernst has recently declared, is not merely to gain access to the unconscious and to paint its contents in a descriptive or realistic way: nor is it even to take various elements from the unconscious and with them construct a separate world of fancy; it is then their aim to break down the barriers both physical and psychical, between the conscious and the unconscious, between the inner and the outer world, and to create a superreality in which real and unreal, meditation and non, conscious and unconscious, meet and mingle and dominate the whole of life. In Bosch's case, a quite similar intention was inspired by medieval theology, and a very literal belief in the reality of the Life Beyond. To a man of his intense powers of visualization, the present life and life to come, Paradise and Hell and the World, were equally real and interpenetrating; they combined, that to say, to form a superreality that was the only reality with which an artist could be concerned"

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODXzBV-ejY0&feature=fvst

 

HA AHA HA

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4t8kVFDE4kU

 

 

THE STARGATE CONSPIRACY
 
Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince

Page206

 

"According to writers Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird, Daniels - who studied the effects of electro- magnetic waves on human beings - became convinced, in the 1970s, of the existence of some kind of intelligent force in the universe that operated through electromagnetic frequencies and that 'human beings can mentally interact with it,.47"

 

 

The Fulcanelli Phenomenon
Kenneth Rayner Johnson 1980
 

Page 263

“It will be as well to recall here what Fulcanelli’s reply was when Bergier asked him what the real nature of alchemy consisted in. He said:
       ‘The secret of alchemy is that there exists a means of manipulating matter and energy so as to create what modern science calls a force-field’ This force field acts upon the observer and puts him in a privileged position
in relation to the universe. From this privileged position he has access to realities that space and time matter
and energy, normally conceal from us. This is what we call the Great Work.’ ”

 

 

A MIDSUMMER NIGHTS DREAM

William Shakespeare

Puck:
Captain of our fairy band,
Helena is here at hand,
And the youth, mistook by me,
Pleading for a lover's fee.
Shall we their fond pageant see?
Lord, what fools these mortals be!

Act 3, scene 2, 110–115

 

L
=
3
-
4
LORD
49
22
4
W
=
5
-
4
WHAT
52
16
7
F
=
6
-
5
FOOLS
67
22
4
T
=
2
-
5
THESE
57
21
3
M
=
4
-
7
MORTALS
98
26
8
B
=
2
-
2
BE
7
7
7
-
-
22
-
27
Add to Reduce
330
114
33
-
-
2+2
-
2+7
Reduce to Deduce
3+3+0
1+1+4
3+3
-
-
4
-
9
Essence of Number
6
6
6

 

 

The Doors of Perception

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Author
Aldous Huxley

The Doors of Perception is a short book by Aldous Huxley, first published in 1954, detailing his experiences when taking mescaline. The book takes the form of Huxley's recollection of a mescaline trip that took place over the course of an afternoon, and takes its title from a phrase in William Blake's 1793 poem The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. Huxley recalls the insights he experienced, which range from the "purely aesthetic" to "sacramental vision".[1] He also incorporates later reflections on the experience and its meaning for art and religion
.
“To see a World in a Grain of Sand
And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand
And Eternity in an hour.”
― William Blake, Auguries of Innocence

Auguries of Innocence is a poem from one of William Blake's notebooks now known as The Pickering Manuscript.[1] It is assumed to have been written in 1803, but was not published until 1863 in the companion volume to Alexander Gilchrist's biography of William Blake. The poem contains a series of paradoxes which speak of innocence juxtaposed with evil and corruption. The poem is 132 lines and has been published with and without breaks that divide the poem into stanzas. An augury is a sign or omen.Auguries of Innocence is a poem from one of William Blake's notebooks now known as The Pickering Manuscript.[1] It is assumed to have been written in 1803, but was not published until 1863 in the companion volume to Alexander Gilchrist's biography of William Blake. The poem contains a series of paradoxes which speak of innocence juxtaposed with evil and corruption. The poem is 132 lines and has been published with and without breaks that divide the poem into stanzas. An augury is a sign or omen.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auguries_of_Innocence

Mescaline (Peyote and San Pedro Cactus)[edit]

Main article: Mescaline

Mescaline is the principal agent of the psychedelic cactus peyote and San Pedro cactus, which has been used in Native American religious ceremonies for thousands of years.[2] A German pharmacologist, Arthur Heffter, isolated the alkaloids in the peyote cactus in 1891. These included mescaline, which he showed through a combination of animal and self-experiments was the compound responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. In 1919, Ernst Späth, another German chemist, synthesised the drug.[3] Although personal accounts of taking the cactus had been written by psychologists such as Weir Mitchell in the US and Havelock Ellis in the UK during the 1890s, the German-American Heinrich Kluver was the first to systematically study its psychological effects in a small book called Mescal and Mechanisms of Hallucinations published in 1928. The book stated that the drug could be used to research the unconscious mind.

Peyote as entheogen drug[edit]

In the 1930s, an American anthropologist Weston La Barre, published The Peyote Cult, the first study of the ritual use of peyote as an entheogen drug amongst the Huichol people of western Mexico. La Barre noted that the Indian users of the cactus took it to obtain visions for prophecy, healing and inner strength.[4] Most psychiatric research projects into the drug in the 1930s and early 1940s tended to look at the role of the drug in mimicking psychosis.[5] In 1947 however, the US Navy undertook Project Chatter, which examined the potential for the drug as a truth revealing agent. In the early 1950s, when Huxley wrote his book, mescaline was still regarded as a research chemical rather than a drug and was listed in the Parke-Davis catalogue with no controls.[6]

Close up of a peyote cactus growing in the wild.

A peyote cactus, from which mescaline is derived.
Huxley had been interested in spiritual matters and had used alternative therapies for some time. In 1936 he told TS Eliot that he was starting to meditate,[7] and he used other therapies too; the Alexander Technique and the Bates Method of seeing had particular importance in guiding him through personal crises.[8] In the late Thirties he had become interested in the spiritual teaching of Vedanta and in 1945 he published The Perennial Philosophy, which set out a philosophy that he believed was found amongst mystics of all religions. He had known for some time of visionary experience achieved by taking drugs in certain non-Christian religions.

Research by Humphry Osmond[edit]

Huxley had first heard of peyote use in ceremonies of the Native American Church in New Mexico soon after coming to the United States in 1937.[9] He first became aware of the cactus’s active ingredient, mescaline, after reading an academic paper written by Humphry Osmond, a British psychiatrist working at Weyburn Mental Hospital, Saskatchewan in early 1952. Osmond's paper set out results from his research into schizophrenia using mescaline that he had been undertaking with colleagues, doctors Abram Hoffer and John Smythies.[10] In the epilogue to his novel The Devils of Loudon published earlier that year, Huxley had written that drugs were "toxic short cuts to self-transcendence”.[11] For the Canadian writer George Woodcock, Huxley had changed his opinion because mescaline was not addictive and appeared to be without unpleasant physical or mental side-effects, further he had found that hypnosis, autohypnosis and meditation had apparently failed to produce the results he wanted.[12]

Huxley's experience with mescaline[edit]

After reading Osmond's paper, Huxley sent him a letter on 10 April 1952, expressing interest in the research and putting himself forward as an experimental subject. His letter explained his motivations as being rooted in an idea that the brain is a reducing valve that restricts consciousness and hoping mescaline might help access a greater degree of awareness, (an idea he later included in the book).[13] Reflecting on his stated motivations, Woodcock wrote that Huxley had realised that the ways to enlightenment were many, including prayer and meditation. He hoped drugs might also break down the barriers of the ego, and both draw him closer to spiritual enlightenment and satisfy his quest as a seeker of knowledge.[14]

In a second letter on 19 April, Huxley invited Osmond to stay while he was visiting Los Angeles to attend the American Psychiatric Association convention.[15] He also wrote that he looked forward to the mescaline experience and reassured Osmond that his doctor did not object to his taking it.[13] Huxley had invited his friend, the writer Gerald Heard, to participate in the experiment; although Heard was too busy this time, he did join him for a session in November of that year.[16]

Day of the experiment[edit]

Osmond arrived at Huxley's house in West Hollywood on 3 May 1953, and recorded his impressions of the famous author as a tolerant and kind man, although he had expected otherwise. The psychiatrist had misgivings about giving the drug to Huxley, and wrote that "I did not relish the possibility, however remote, of being the man who drove Aldous Huxley mad," but instead found him an ideal subject. Huxley was “shrewd, matter-of-fact and to the point" and his wife Maria "eminently sensible".[17] Overall, they all liked each other, which was very important when administering the drug. The mescaline was slow to take effect, but Osmond saw that after two and a half hours the drug was working and after three hours Huxley was responding well.[18] The experience lasted eight hours and both Osmond and Maria remained with him throughout.[19]

The experience started in Huxley's study before the party made a seven block trip to The Owl Drug (Rexall) store, known as World's Biggest Drugstore, at the corner of Beverly and La Cienega Boulevards. Huxley was particularly fond of the shop and the large variety of products available there, (in stark contrast to the much smaller selection in English chemist's shops). There he considered a variety of paintings in art books. For one of his friends, Huxley's poor eyesight manifested in both a great desire to see and a strong interest in painting, which influenced the strong visual and artistic nature of his experience.[20]

After returning home to listen to music, eat, and walk in the garden, a friend drove the threesome to the hills overlooking the city. Photographs show Huxley standing, alternately arms on hips and outstretched with a grin on his face. Finally, they returned home and to ordinary consciousness.[21] One of Huxley’s friends who met him on the day said that despite writing about wearing flannel trousers, he was actually wearing blue jeans. Huxley admitted to having changed the fabric as Maria thought he should be better dressed for his readers.[22] Osmond later said he had a photo of the day that showed Huxley wearing flannels.[23]

One of the copies of William Blake's unique hand painted editions, created for the original printing of the poem. The line from which Huxley draws the title is in the second to last paragraph. This image represents Copy H, Plate 14 of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell which is currently held at The Fitzwilliam Museum.[24]
After Osmond's departure, Huxley and Maria left to go on a three-week, 5,000-mile car trip around the national parks of the North West of the USA. After returning to Los Angeles, he took a month to write the book.[25] The Doors of Perception was the first book Huxley dedicated to his wife Maria.[26] Harold Raymond, at his publisher Chatto and Windus, said of the manuscript, "You are the most articulate guinea pig that any scientist could hope to engage.”[23] The title was taken from William Blake's poem The Marriage of Heaven and Hell:


If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, Infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thro' narrow chinks of his cavern.[27]

Huxley had used Blake's metaphor in The Doors of Perception while discussing the paintings of Vermeer and the Nain brothers, and previously in The Perennial Philosophy, once in relation to the use of mortification as a means to remove persistent spiritual myopia and secondly to refer to the absence of separation in spiritual vision.[28] In the early 1950s, Huxley had suffered a debilitating attack of the eye condition iritis. This increased his concern for his already poor eyesight and much of his work in the early part of the decade had featured metaphors of vision and sight.[29]

Synopsis[edit]

After a brief overview of research into mescaline, Huxley recounts that he was given 4/10 of a gram at 11:00 am one day in May 1953. Huxley writes that he hoped to gain insight into extraordinary states of mind and expected to see brightly coloured visionary landscapes. When he only sees lights and shapes, he puts this down to being a bad visualiser; however, he experiences a great change in his perception of the external world.[30]

By 12:30 pm, a vase of flowers becomes the "miracle, moment by moment, of naked existence". The experience, he asserts, is neither agreeable nor disagreeable, but simply "is". He likens it to Meister Eckhart's "istigheit" or "is-ness", and Plato's "Being" but not separated from "Becoming". He feels he understands the Hindu concept of Satchitananda, as well as the Zen koan that "the dharma body of the Buddha is in the hedge" and Buddhist suchness. In this state, Huxley explains he didn't have an "I", but instead a "not-I". Meaning and existence, pattern and colour become more significant than spatial relationships and time. Duration is replaced by a perpetual present.[31]

Reflecting on the experience afterwards, Huxley finds himself in agreement with philosopher C. D. Broad that to enable us to live, the brain and nervous system eliminate unessential information from the totality of the Mind at Large.[32]

Mescaline (Peyote and San Pedro Cactus)[edit]

Main article: Mescaline

Mescaline is the principal agent of the psychedelic cactus peyote and San Pedro cactus, which has been used in Native American religious ceremonies for thousands of years.[2] A German pharmacologist, Arthur Heffter, isolated the alkaloids in the peyote cactus in 1891. These included mescaline, which he showed through a combination of animal and self-experiments was the compound responsible for the psychoactive properties of the plant. In 1919, Ernst Späth, another German chemist, synthesised the drug.[3] Although personal accounts of taking the cactus had been written by psychologists such as Weir Mitchell in the US and Havelock Ellis in the UK during the 1890s, the German-American Heinrich Kluver was the first to systematically study its psychological effects in a small book called Mescal and Mechanisms of Hallucinations published in 1928. The book stated that the drug could be used to research the unconscious mind.

Peyote as entheogen drug[edit]

In the 1930s, an American anthropologist Weston La Barre, published The Peyote Cult, the first study of the ritual use of peyote as an entheogen drug amongst the Huichol people of western Mexico. La Barre noted that the Indian users of the cactus took it to obtain visions for prophecy, healing and inner strength.[4] Most psychiatric research projects into the drug in the 1930s and early 1940s tended to look at the role of the drug in mimicking psychosis.[5] In 1947 however, the US Navy undertook Project Chatter, which examined the potential for the drug as a truth revealing agent. In the early 1950s, when Huxley wrote his book, mescaline was still regarded as a research chemical rather than a drug and was listed in the Parke-Davis catalogue with no controls.[6]

Close up of a peyote cactus growing in the wild.

A peyote cactus, from which mescaline is derived.
Huxley had been interested in spiritual matters and had used alternative therapies for some time. In 1936 he told TS Eliot that he was starting to meditate,[7] and he used other therapies too; the Alexander Technique and the Bates Method of seeing had particular importance in guiding him through personal crises.[8] In the late Thirties he had become interested in the spiritual teaching of Vedanta and in 1945 he published The Perennial Philosophy, which set out a philosophy that he believed was found amongst mystics of all religions. He had known for some time of visionary experience achieved by taking drugs in certain non-Christian religions.

Research by Humphry Osmond[edit]

Huxley had first heard of peyote use in ceremonies of the Native American Church in New Mexico soon after coming to the United States in 1937.[9] He first became aware of the cactus’s active ingredient, mescaline, after reading an academic paper written by Humphry Osmond, a British psychiatrist working at Weyburn Mental Hospital, Saskatchewan in early 1952. Osmond's paper set out results from his research into schizophrenia using mescaline that he had been undertaking with colleagues, doctors Abram Hoffer and John Smythies.[10] In the epilogue to his novel The Devils of Loudon published earlier that year, Huxley had written that drugs were "toxic short cuts to self-transcendence”.[11] For the Canadian writer George Woodcock, Huxley had changed his opinion because mescaline was not addictive and appeared to be without unpleasant physical or mental side-effects, further he had found that hypnosis, autohypnosis and meditation had apparently failed to produce the results he wanted.[12]

Huxley's experience with mescaline[edit]

After reading Osmond's paper, Huxley sent him a letter on 10 April 1952, expressing interest in the research and putting himself forward as an experimental subject. His letter explained his motivations as being rooted in an idea that the brain is a reducing valve that restricts consciousness and hoping mescaline might help access a greater degree of awareness, (an idea he later included in the book).[13] Reflecting on his stated motivations, Woodcock wrote that Huxley had realised that the ways to enlightenment were many, including prayer and meditation. He hoped drugs might also break down the barriers of the ego, and both draw him closer to spiritual enlightenment and satisfy his quest as a seeker of knowledge.[14]

In a second letter on 19 April, Huxley invited Osmond to stay while he was visiting Los Angeles to attend the American Psychiatric Association convention.[15] He also wrote that he looked forward to the mescaline experience and reassured Osmond that his doctor did not object to his taking it.[13] Huxley had invited his friend, the writer Gerald Heard, to participate in the experiment; although Heard was too busy this time, he did join him for a session in November of that year.[16]

Day of the experiment[edit]

Osmond arrived at Huxley's house in West Hollywood on 3 May 1953, and recorded his impressions of the famous author as a tolerant and kind man, although he had expected otherwise. The psychiatrist had misgivings about giving the drug to Huxley, and wrote that "I did not relish the possibility, however remote, of being the man who drove Aldous Huxley mad," but instead found him an ideal subject. Huxley was “shrewd, matter-of-fact and to the point" and his wife Maria "eminently sensible".[17] Overall, they all liked each other, which was very important when administering the drug. The mescaline was slow to take effect, but Osmond saw that after two and a half hours the drug was working and after three hours Huxley was responding well.[18] The experience lasted eight hours and both Osmond and Maria remained with him throughout.[19]

The experience started in Huxley's study before the party made a seven block trip to The Owl Drug (Rexall) store, known as World's Biggest Drugstore, at the corner of Beverly and La Cienega Boulevards. Huxley was particularly fond of the shop and the large variety of products available there, (in stark contrast to the much smaller selection in English chemist's shops). There he considered a variety of paintings in art books. For one of his friends, Huxley's poor eyesight manifested in both a great desire to see and a strong interest in painting, which influenced the strong visual and artistic nature of his experience.[20]

After returning home to listen to music, eat, and walk in the garden, a friend drove the threesome to the hills overlooking the city. Photographs show Huxley standing, alternately arms on hips and outstretched with a grin on his face. Finally, they returned home and to ordinary consciousness.[21] One of Huxley’s friends who met him on the day said that despite writing about wearing flannel trousers, he was actually wearing blue jeans. Huxley admitted to having changed the fabric as Maria thought he should be better dressed for his readers.[22] Osmond later said he had a photo of the day that showed Huxley wearing flannels.[23]

Compilation of the book[edit]

 

One of the copies of William Blake's unique hand painted editions, created for the original printing of the poem. The line from which Huxley draws the title is in the second to last paragraph. This image represents Copy H, Plate 14 of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell which is currently held at The Fitzwilliam Museum.[24]
After Osmond's departure, Huxley and Maria left to go on a three-week, 5,000-mile car trip around the national parks of the North West of the USA. After returning to Los Angeles, he took a month to write the book.[25] The Doors of Perception was the first book Huxley dedicated to his wife Maria.[26] Harold Raymond, at his publisher Chatto and Windus, said of the manuscript, "You are the most articulate guinea pig that any scientist could hope to engage.”[23] The title was taken from William Blake's poem The Marriage of Heaven and Hell:

If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, Infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thro' narrow chinks of his cavern.[27]

Huxley had used Blake's metaphor in The Doors of Perception while discussing the paintings of Vermeer and the Nain brothers, and previously in The Perennial Philosophy, once in relation to the use of mortification as a means to remove persistent spiritual myopia and secondly to refer to the absence of separation in spiritual vision.[28] In the early 1950s, Huxley had suffered a debilitating attack of the eye condition iritis. This increased his concern for his already poor eyesight and much of his work in the early part of the decade had featured metaphors of vision and sight.[29]

Synopsis[edit]

After a brief overview of research into mescaline, Huxley recounts that he was given 4/10 of a gram at 11:00 am one day in May 1953. Huxley writes that he hoped to gain insight into extraordinary states of mind and expected to see brightly coloured visionary landscapes. When he only sees lights and shapes, he puts this down to being a bad visualiser; however, he experiences a great change in his perception of the external world.[30]

By 12:30 pm, a vase of flowers becomes the "miracle, moment by moment, of naked existence". The experience, he asserts, is neither agreeable nor disagreeable, but simply "is". He likens it to Meister Eckhart's "istigheit" or "is-ness", and Plato's "Being" but not separated from "Becoming". He feels he understands the Hindu concept of Satchitananda, as well as the Zen koan that "the dharma body of the Buddha is in the hedge" and Buddhist suchness. In this state, Huxley explains he didn't have an "I", but instead a "not-I". Meaning and existence, pattern and colour become more significant than spatial relationships and time. Duration is replaced by a perpetual present.[31]

Reflecting on the experience afterwards, Huxley finds himself in agreement with philosopher C. D. Broad that to enable us to live, the brain and nervous system eliminate unessential information from the totality of the Mind at Large.[32]

Vermeer's The Milkmaid.

The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer. "That mysterious artist was truly gifted with the vision that perceives the Dharma-Body as the hedge at the bottom of the garden", reflected Huxley.
In summary, Huxley writes that the ability to think straight is not reduced while under the influence of mescaline, visual impressions are intensified, and the human experimenter will see no reason for action because the experience is so fascinating.[33]

Temporarily leaving the chronological flow, he mentions that four or five hours into the experience he was taken to the World's Biggest Drug Store (WBDS), where he was presented with books on art. In one book, the dress in Botticelli's Judith provokes a reflection on drapery as a major artistic theme as it allows painters to include the abstract in representational art, to create mood, and also to represent the mystery of pure being.[34] Huxley feels that human affairs are somewhat irrelevant whilst on mescaline and attempts to shed light on this by reflecting on paintings featuring people.[35] Cézanne's Self-portrait with a straw hat seems incredibly pretentious, while Vermeer's human still lifes (also, the Le Nain brothers and Vuillard) are the nearest to reflecting this not-self state.[36]

For Huxley, the reconciliation of these cleansed perceptions with humanity reflects the age old debate between active and contemplative life, known as the way of Martha and the way of Mary. As Huxley believes that contemplation should also include action and charity, he concludes that the experience represents contemplation at its height, but not its fullness. Correct behaviour and alertness are needed. Nonetheless, Huxley maintains that even quietistic contemplation has an ethical value, because it is concerned with negative virtues and acts to channel the transcendent into the world.[37]

Red Hot Poker or Kniphofia flowers.

The Red Hot Poker flowers in Huxley's garden were "so passionately alive that they seemed to be standing on the very brink of utterance".
After listening to Mozart's C-Minor Piano Concerto, Gesualdo's madrigals and Alban Berg's Lyric Suite,[38] Huxley heads into the garden. Outside, the garden chairs take on such an immense intensity that he fears being overwhelmed; this gives him an insight into madness. He reflects that spiritual literature, including the works of Jakob Böhme, William Law and the Tibetan Book of the Dead, talk of these pains and terrors. Huxley speculates that schizophrenia is the inability to escape from this reality into the world of common sense and thus help would be essential.[39]

After lunch and the drive to the WBDS he returns home and to his ordinary state of mind. His final insight is taken from Buddhist scripture: that within sameness there is difference, although that difference is not different from sameness.[40]

The book finishes with Huxley's final reflections on the meaning of his experience. Firstly, the urge to transcend one's self is universal through times and cultures (and was characterised by H. G. Wells as The Door in the Wall).[41] He reasons that better, healthier "doors" are needed than alcohol and tobacco. Mescaline has the advantage of not provoking violence in takers, but its effects last an inconveniently long time and some users can have negative reactions. Ideally, self-transcendence would be found in religion, but Huxley feels that it is unlikely that this will ever happen. Christianity and mescaline seem well-suited for each other; the Native American Church for instance uses the drug as a sacrament, where its use combines religious feeling with decorum.[42]

Huxley concludes that mescaline is not enlightenment or the Beatific vision, but a "gratuitous grace" (a term taken from Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica).[43] It is not necessary but helpful, especially so for the intellectual, who can become the victim of words and symbols. Although systematic reasoning is important, direct perception has intrinsic value too. Finally, Huxley maintains that the person who has this experience will be transformed for the better.

Reception[edit]

The book met with a variety of responses, both positive and negative,[15] from writers in the field of literature, psychiatry, philosophy and religion. These included a symposium published in The Saturday Review magazine with the unlikely title of, Mescalin – An Answer to Cigarettes, including contributions from Huxley; J.S. Slotkin, a professor of Anthropology; and a physician, Dr. W.C. Cutting.[44]

Literature: For the Scottish poet, Edwin Muir “Mr. Huxley's experiment is extraordinary, and is beautifully described”.[45] Thomas Mann, the author and friend of Huxley, believed the book demonstrated Huxley's escapism. He thought that while escapism found in mysticism might be honourable, drugs were not. Huxley's 'aesthetic self-indulgence' and indifference to humanity would lead to suffering or stupidity, and he concluded the book was irresponsible, if not quite immoral, to encourage young people to try the drug.[46]

For Huxley's biographer and friend, the author Sybille Bedford, the book combined sincerity with simplicity, passion with detachment.[47] "It reflects the heart and mind open to meet the given, ready, even longing, to accept the wonderful. The Doors is a quiet book. It is also one that postulates a goodwill – the choice once more of the nobler hypothesis. It turned out, for certain temperaments, a seductive book.”[48] For biographer David King Dunaway, The Doors of Perception, along with The Art of Seeing, can be seen as the closest Huxley ever came to autobiographical writing.[49]

Psychiatric responses included those of William Sargant, the controversial British psychiatrist, who reviewed the book for The British Medical Journal and particularly focused on Huxley's reflections on schizophrenia. He wrote that the book brought to life the mental suffering of schizophrenics, which should make psychiatrists uneasy about their failure to relieve this. Also, he hoped that the book would encourage the investigation of the physiological, rather than psychological, aspects of psychiatry.[50] Other medical researchers questioned the validity of Huxley's account. The book contained "99 percent Aldous Huxley and only one half gram mescaline" according to Ronald Fisher.[51] Joost A.M. Meerloo found Huxley's reactions "not necessarily the same as... other people's experiences."[52]

For Steven J. Novak, The Doors Of Perception (and Heaven and Hell) redefined taking mescaline (and LSD, although Huxley had not taken it until after he had written both books) as a mystical experience with possible psychotherapeutic benefits, where physicians had previously thought of the drug in terms of mimicking a psychotic episode, known as psychotomimetic.[53] The popularity of the book also affected research into these drugs, because researchers needed a random sample of subjects with no preconceptions about the drug to conduct experiments, and these became very difficult to find.[54]

In the field of religion, Huxley’s friend and spiritual mentor, the Vedantic monk Swami Prabhavananda, thought that mescaline was an illegitimate path to enlightenment, a "deadly heresy" as Christopher Isherwood put it.[23] Martin Buber, the Jewish religious philosopher, attacked Huxley's notion that mescaline allowed a person to participate in "common being", and held that the drug ushered users "merely into a strictly private sphere". Philosophically, Buber believed the drug experiences to be holidays "from the person participating in the community of logos and cosmos—holidays from the very uncomfortable reminder to verify oneself as such a person." For Buber man must master, withstand and alter his situation, or even leave it, "but the fugitive flight out of the claim of the situation into situationlessness is no legitimate affair of man."[55]

Robert Charles Zaehner[edit]

It was probably the criticisms of The Doors of Perception put forward by Robert Charles Zaehner, a professor at Oxford University, that formed the fullest and earliest critiques from a religious and philosophical perspective. In 1954, Zaehner published an article called The Menace of Mescaline, in which he asserted that "artificial interference with consciousness" could have nothing to do with the Christian "Beatific Vision".[56] Zaehner expanded on these criticisms in his book Mysticism Sacred and Profane (1957), which also acts as a theistic riposte to what he sees as the monism of Huxley's The Perennial Philosophy. Although he acknowledged the importance of The Doors of Perception as a challenge to people interested in religious experience,[57] he pointed out what he saw as inconsistencies and self-contradictions.[58] Zaehner concludes that Huxley's apprehensions under mescaline are affected by his deep familiarity with Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism. So the experience may not be the same for others who take the drug and do not have this background, although they will undoubtedly experience a transformation of sensation.[59] Zaehner himself was a convert to Catholicism.

That the longing to transcend oneself is "one of the principal appetites of the soul"[60] is questioned by Zaehner. There are still people who do not feel this desire to escape themselves,[61] and religion itself need not mean escaping from the ego.[62] Zaehner criticises what he sees as Huxley's apparent call for all religious people to use drugs (including alcohol) as part of their practices.[63] Quoting St Paul's proscriptions against drunkenness in church, in 1 Corinthians xi, Zaehner makes the point that artificial ecstatic states and spiritual union with God are not the same.[58]

Holding that there are similarities between the experience on mescaline, the mania in a manic-depressive psychosis and the visions of God of a mystical saint suggests, for Zaehner, that the saint's visions must be the same as those of a lunatic.[64] The personality is dissipated into the world, for Huxley on mescaline and people in a manic state, which is similar to the experience of nature mystics.[65] However, this experience is different from the theistic mystic who is absorbed into a God, who is quite different from the objective world. The appendices to Mysticism Sacred and Profane include three accounts of mescaline experiences, including those of Zaehner himself. He writes that he was transported into a world of farcical meaninglessness and notes that the experience was interesting and funny, but not religious.

Photograph of Aldous Huxley.

Huxley later wrote that the "things which had entirely filled my attention on that first occasion [chronicled in The Doors of Perception], I now perceived to be temptations – temptations to escape from the central reality into a false, or at least imperfect and partial Nirvanas of beauty and mere knowledge."
Huston Smith[edit]

Soon after the publication of his book, Huxley wrote to Harold Raymond at Chatto and Windus that he thought it strange that when Hilaire Belloc and G. K. Chesterton wrote the praises of alcohol they were still considered good Christians, while anyone who suggested other routes to self-transcendence was accused of being a drug addict and perverter of mankind.[66] Later Huxley responded to Zaehner in an article published in 1961: "For most of those to whom the experiences have been vouchsafed, their value is self-evident. By Dr. Zaehner, the author of Mysticism, Sacred and Profane, their deliberate induction is regarded as immoral. To which his colleague, Professor Price, retorts in effect, 'Speak for yourself!'".[67]

Professor of religion and philosophy Huston Smith took issue with the belief that Mysticism Sacred and Profane had fully examined and refuted Huxley's claims made in The Doors of Perception.[68] Smith claims that consciousness-changing substances have been linked with religion both throughout history and across the world, and further it is possible that many religious perspectives had their origins in them, which were later forgotten. Acknowledging that personality, preparation and environment all play a role in the effects of the drugs, Huston Smith draws attention to evidence that suggests that a religious outcome of the experience may not be restricted to one of Huxley's temperament. Further, because Zaehner's experience was not religious, does not prove that none will be. Contrary to Zaehner, Huston Smith draws attention to evidence suggesting that these drugs can facilitate theistic mystical experience.[68]

As the descriptions of naturally occurring and drug-stimulated mystical experiences cannot be distinguished phenomenologically, Huston Smith regards Zaehner's position in Mysticism Sacred and Profane, as a product of the conflict between science and religion – that religion tends to ignore the findings of science. Nonetheless, although these drugs may produce a religious experience, they need not produce a religious life, unless set within a context of faith and discipline. Finally, he concludes that psychedelic drugs should not be forgotten in relation to religion because the phenomenon of religious awe, or the encounter with the holy, is declining and religion cannot survive long in its absence.[68]

Later experience[edit]

Huxley continued to take these substances several times a year until his death,[69] but with a serious and temperate frame of mind.[70] He refused to talk about the substances outside scientific meetings,[71] turned down an invitation to talk about them on TV[72] and refused the leadership of a foundation devoted to the study of psychedelics, explaining that they were only one of his diverse number of interests.[73] For Philip Thody, a professor of French literature, Huxley's revelations made him conscious of the objections that had been put forward to his theory of mysticism set out in Eyeless in Gaza and Grey Eminence, and consequently Island reveals a more humane philosophy.[74] However, this change in perspective may lie elsewhere. In October 1955, Huxley had an experience while on LSD that he considered more profound than those detailed in The Doors of Perception. Huxley was overwhelmed to the point where he decided his previous experiments, the ones detailed in Doors and Heaven and Hell, had been nothing but entertaining sideshows.[75] He wrote in a letter to Humphry Osmond, that he experienced "the direct, total awareness, from the inside, so to say, of Love as the primary and fundamental cosmic fact. ... I was this fact; or perhaps it would be more accurate to say that this fact occupied the place where I had been. ... And the things which had entirely filled my attention on that first occasion, I now perceived to be temptations – temptations to escape from the central reality into a false, or at least imperfect and partial Nirvanas of beauty and mere knowledge."[76] The experience made its way into the final chapter of Island.[77] This raised a troublesome point. Was it better to pursue a course of careful psychological experimentation.... or was the real value of these drugs to "stimulate the most basic kind of religious ecstasy"?[75]

Influence[edit]

A variety of influences have been claimed for the book. The psychedelic proselytiser, Timothy Leary, was given the book by a colleague soon after returning from Mexico where he had first taken psilocybin mushrooms in the summer of 1960. He found that The Doors of Perception corroborated what he had experienced 'and more too'.[78] Leary soon set up a meeting with Huxley and the two became friendly. The book can also be seen as a part of the history of entheogenic model of understanding these drugs, that sees them within a spiritual context.[79] Looking to broader culture, Huxley's experiment can be seen, alongside the work of other artists such as John Cage and Jackson Pollock, as proposing a model of the imagination opposite to the symbolic, representational structures that had governed Western thought for centuries. Although this new direction cannot be attributed entirely to mescaline or Huxley, it had made a strong impact on politics, art and religion.[80]

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
D
=
4
-
5
DOORS
71
26
8
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
P
=
7
-
10
PERCEPTION
121
58
4
-
-
19
-
20
Add to Reduce
246
111
21
-
-
1+9
-
2+0
First Total
2+4+6
1+1+1
2+1
-
-
10
-
2
Reduce to Deduce
12
3
3
-
-
1+0
-
-
Second Total
1+2
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
Essence of Number
3
3
3

 

 

4
ZERO
64
28
1

 

OUT OF ZERO COMETH ONE

 

 

JUST SIX NUMBERS

Martin Rees

1
999

OUR COSMIC HABITAT

PLANETS STARS AND LIFE

Page 24

A

proton

is

1,836 times heavier than an electron, and the number 1,836

would have the same connotations to any 'intelligence'

 


" the number 1,836 would have the same connotations"
"A remarkable use of the number 3168 occurs"




1836
       1863
             1683
                   1638
                         1368
                               1386
                                     8613
                                            8631
                                                  8316
                                                        8361
                                                              8163
                                                                       8136
                                                                             6813
                                                                                   6831
                                                                                         6381
                                                                                               6318
                                                                                                      6138
                                                                                                             6183
                                                                                                                   3861
                                                                                                                         3816
                                                                                                                               3681
                                                                                                                                     3618
                                                                                                                                           3186
                                                                                                                                                 3168

 

 

4
HOLY
60
24
6
-
R
-
-
-
3
THE
33
15
6
6
COSMIC
62
26
8
3
WOW
61
16
7
7
SIGNALS
81
27
9
23
First Total
297
108
36
2+3
Add to Reduce
2+9+7
1+0+8
3+6
5
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
5
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

S
=
1
-
6
SEARCH
54
27
9
F
=
6
-
3
FOR
39
21
3
E
=
5
-
5
EXTRA
68
23
5
T
=
2
-
11
TERRESTRIAL
145
55
1
I
=
9
-
12
INTELLIGENCE
115
61
7
S
-
23
4
37
First Total
421
187
25
-
-
2+3
-
3+7
Add to Reduce
4+2+1
1+8+7
2+5
-
-
5
-
10
Second Total
7
16
7
-
-
-
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+6
-
-
-
5
-
1
Essence of Number
7
7
7

 

 

4
S.E.T.I.
53
17
8

 

 

-
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
9
+
=
10
1+0
-
1
=
1
`-
`-
19
-
-
9
+
=
28
2+8
=
10
1+0
1
-
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
+
=
7
-
=
7
=
7
`-
`-
-
5
20
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
-
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
`-
`-
19
5
20
9
+
=
53
5+3
=
8
=
8
-
-
1
5
2
9
+
=
17
1+7
=
8
1+0
8
-
3
S
E
T
I
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
1
=
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
THREE
3
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
FOUR
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
1
=
5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
SIX
6
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
SEVEN
7
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
28
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
17
-
-
3
-
17
2+8
T
-
-
-
9
T
-
1+7
-
-
-
-
1+7
10
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
8
-
-
3
-
8
1+0
-
1
5
2
9
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
8
-
-
3
-
8

 

 

3
S
E
T
I
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
1
-
-
9
+
=
10
1+0
-
1
=
1
`-
19
-
-
9
+
=
28
2+8
=
10
1+0
1
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
+
=
7
-
=
7
=
7
`-
-
5
20
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
`-
19
5
20
9
+
=
53
5+3
=
8
=
8
-
1
5
2
9
+
=
17
1+7
=
8
1+0
8
3
S
E
T
I
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
1
=
2
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
1
=
5
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
17
-
-
3
-
17
T
-
-
-
9
T
-
1+7
-
-
-
-
1+7
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
8
-
-
3
-
8
-
1
5
2
9
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
S
E
T
I
-
-
8
-
-
3
-
8

 

 

LIFE OUT THEIR

THE TRUTH OF - AND SEARCH FOR - EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE

Michael White 1998

Page 97

"The first venue for Phoenix was / Page 98 / Australia, where astronomers used the Parkes 64-metre antenna and the Mopra 22-metre antenna, both in New South Wales. Because Australia was the first site, a very high proportion of the stars in the targeted group were those seen only in the Southern Hemisphere, including 650 G-Dwarf stars. In 1996, the system was taken back to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in West Virginia, where a 40-metre dish was used to follow through the next stage of the search. The project is currently established at the largest radio telescope in the world - the 305-metre Arcibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico.
At the time of going to press, the interstellar 'airwaves' remain silent, but no one involved in the Phoenix project thought there would be much chance of immediate success. And indeed, there are some astronomers who suggest that the official SETI teams are going about things the wrong way. They argue that radio tele­scopes should be turned towards the centre of the Milky Way, where the stars are far more densely packed and where, they say, there is a far greater chance of finding something interesting. But this has associated problems, not least of which is the fact that it would be very difficult to'separate the multitude of natural signals constantly emitted from so many stellar objects. As the British astronomer Michael Rowan-Robinson says: 'Looking along the plane of the galaxy, like looking at car headlights in a traffic jam, makes it very difficult to detect one source of radio emission from another. And, if such radio emissions would also fade away over distance, we would probably detect nothing.'
An alternative argument is that we should not be looking for radio signals at all. Some researchers suggest that an advanced alien race would have dispensed with radio long ago, and may be . sending information using lasers. Others assume that the majority of surviving civilisations in the Universe would be far in advance of us and might be located by searching for the heat they gener­ate as a by-product of their energy-production systems.
The eminent American physicist, and one-time associate of Albert Einstein, Freeman Dyson, who works at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, has proposed a scheme by which a very advanced technology could produce an almost limitless fuel / Page 99 / supply. He speculates that a sufficiently developed civilisation could harness the total energy output of their home sun by build­ing a sphere of receivers and energy converters around it. These 'Dyson spheres', as they have become known, would of course provide tremendous amounts of energy but would also radiate commensurate amounts of heat, which could be detected light­years away in the infrared region of the spectrum. Others have taken this idea even further by suggesting that civilisations perhaps millions of years in advance of our own could utilise the energy output of an entire galaxy, or even a cluster of galaxies, and that some of the many types of energy source we see in distant parts of the Universe are the waste products from such processes." This has led those involved with SETI to categorise potential civilis a­tions into three distinct classes.
Type-I cultures (which include us) are those which have developed to the point where they can exploit the natural resources of a single, home world. A Type-II civilisation would be capable of building something like Dyson spheres and processing the entire energy output of their sun. This level of development would almost certainly be associated with the ability to travel interstellar distances. Such cultures may also have developed means by which they could circumnavigate the hurdles presented by the light-speed restriction. A culture that had reached this stage of development would be thousands or perhaps tens of thousands of years in advance of us.
A Type-III civilisation would be millions of years ahead of us, / Page 100 / and would have developed the technology to utilise the entire resources of their galaxy, an ability which to us appears God-like but is actually possible within the laws of physics. It is nothing more supernatural than a consequence of a life-form starting their evolutionary development a little before us in relative, universal terms. To us, such beings would demonstrate God-like powers, but they too would have originated in a slurry of single-celled organisms on some far-distant planet. They would simply have had a longer time in which to develop.
This classification was first postulated in the 1960s, quickly becoming an internationally accepted standard. This was also the most active period of Soviet work on the search for alien civilisations, and on one occasion scientists in the USSR actually thought for a while that they had encountered a Type-III civilisation.
It was 1965, the Russians were leading the world in efforts to detect messages from ETs, and their top researcher was a man named Nikolai Kardashev (who was also the first to discuss seri­ously the idea of super-civilisations and civilisation types). One morning at the Crimea Deep Space Station, Kardashev's team detected an incredibly strong signal that was certainly of extrater­restrial origin. The interesting thing about it was not simply its power, but the fact that the signal seemed to slowly change frequency over time, sweeping through a broad band. This type of signal was quite unprecedented, and to the Soviet team almost certainly the fingerprint of a civilisation attempting to make contact.
Against his better judgement, but bowing to pressure from his colleagues, Kardashev decided to announce the finding publicly, declaring to the world's press that the source was almost certainly an extraterrestrial civilisation. Sadly, it was not to be. Within hours, scientists at Caltech in the US contacted their Russian colleagues to inform them that what they had observed fitted exactly the description of an object they too had detected a few months earlier and had been studying ever since. They called the source a 'quasar', or quasi-stellar object, and it was definitely not a signal from an advanced civilisation of any description.
Quasars are still only partially understood. Scientists know that they are tremendously powerful sources of electromagnetic radi-/ Page 101 / ation and that they are moving away from us at high speeds. They are believed to be extremely turbulent galaxies - a seething mass of matter and energy very different from our own stable Milky Way. It is suspected that at the heart of each quasar lies a black hole which traps within its intense gravitational field anything that approaches it. As matter and energy are sucked in, but before they disappear behind what physicists call the 'event horizon' (from which there is no return), they collide with other forms of matter already trapped there and emit energy that may just escape the gravitational clutches of the nearby black hole.
Quasars are fascinating and exotic stellar objects, and their close study has provided new insights into the nature of the Universe; but they are not the only strange objects to be discovered by acci­dent and mistaken for the hallmarks of extraterrestrial intelligence.
In 1967, a Ph.D. student at Cambridge University named Jocelyn Bell detected a strong, regular signal coming from deep space in the waterhole region of the spectrum. After reporting the findings to her supervisor, Anthony Hewish, they agreed they would not go public until they had investigated the signal fully. Gradually they eliminated all possible conventional sources until they realised that the signal was actually an emission from a strange object in deep space that was sending out an almost p.er­fectly regular pulse. The object was then found to be a neutron star, or 'pulsar', the remains of a dead star that had collapsed under its own gravitational field so much that the electrons orbiting the nucleus of the atoms making up the star had been jammed into the nuclei and fused with protons to form neutrons. This super-dense matter emits pulses with such regularity that pulsars are thought to be'the most accurate clocks in th'e Universe.
Since Bell and Hewish's discovery, other regular signals have been detected which have not originated from pulsars or any ter­restrial source, but have appeared only once. A team led by Professor Michael Horowitz at Harvard University has reported thirty-seven such signals during the past ten years, all within twenty-five light-years of Earth, but because they have not been repeated they do not qualify as genuine candidates for signals from a race trying to contact us. They could, of course, be one-off / Page 102 / leakages from specific events, but we might never know, and for scientists to analyse a signal properly, they need a repeated, strong, regular pulse.
So far, the most important find was a signal detected at the Ohio State University 'Big Ear' radio telescope in August 1977. Known by SETI researchers and enthusiasts as the 'Wow' signal, after the monosyllabic exclamation written on the computer print-out by an astonished astronomer at the station, it lasted exactly thirty-seven seconds and appears to have come from the direction of Sagittarius. Although, most strikingly, the signal was a narrow-band signal precisely at the hydrogen frequency of 1420 MHz, it has not been detected even a second time, in Sagittarius or anywhere else.
So, what of the future? Is the continuing search for intelligent life in the Universe a total waste of money, as its opponents insist, or are we perhaps on the threshold of a great discovery?
In commercial terms, SETI is potentially the greatest scientific bargain ever. The cost of the project to the US government was a tenth of 1 per cent of NASA's annual budget and is now financed privately, so even the die-hard sceptics cannot claim that it is drain on the tax-payer. Furthermore, the potential gains from the success of the project would be unparalleled in human history. Quite simply, there is absolutely nothing to lose in trying.
More problematic will be maintaining the momentum of a pro­ject which, year after year, fails to deliver the goods. The argument against this is that both pulsars and quasars were dis­covered indirectly through the efforts of SETI researchers, and it is also true that improvements in techniques. and development of new types of equipment used in the search will filter down into other areas of research and then on to everyday use.
However, one difficulty for future researchers will be the growing level of terrestrial interference. Some enthusiasts argue that we are currently living through a window of opportunity in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and that the embryonic communications revolution will soon work against our chances of detecting a pure signal from another world."

Page 99 notes

• For more than twenty-five years, astronomers have been observing sudden bursts of energy from a variety of different locations in the cosmos. They detect these bursts, which are thought to be the result of the most powerful explosions ever witnessed, by following a left-over trace of gamma rays (a form of electromagnetic radiation) that reach the Earth. There are literally hundreds of theories that attempt to explain these bursts, including the notion that they could be the result of the activities of some super-civilisation. Recently, one such burst was carefully moni­tored and found to have come from an explosion so powerful that in ten minutes the source produced more energy than the total output of our Sun during its life­time. Astronomers are actively chasing the source and the cause of this phenomenon and hope to solve the mystery after one more sustained observation of the effect. The trouble is, no one knows when or where the next one will be.

 

 

JOURNEY = 108 36 9 36 108 = JOURNEY

 

MAGIC ISISIS THE VIEW FROM THE MAGI'S MAGIC MOUNTAIN

THE UPSIDE DOWN OF THE DOWNSIDE UP

 

JOURNEY = 108 36 9 36 108 = JOURNEY

 

 

On Nature (Peri Physeos)
by Parmenides of Elea (c. 475 B.C.)
On Nature (Peri Physeos) by Parmenides of Elea


On Nature by Parmenides of Elea. A highly readable translation of the classic by the Greek father of metaphysics. Edited by Allan F. Randall from translations by ...
Theurgy and Numbers: On Nature - Peri Physeos

On Nature (Peri Physeos) by Parmenides of Elea (c. 475 B.C.)

ON NATURE 108-36-9

 

O
=
6
-
2
ON
29
11
2
N
=
5
-
6
NATURE
79
25
7
-
-
21
-
8
Add to Reduce
108
36
9
-
-
3+1
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+0+8
3+6
-
-
-
3
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

B
=
2
4
BLUE
40
13
4
P
=
7
6
PLANET
68
23
5
``-
-
9
10
-
108
36
9
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+0+8
3+6
-
-
-
9
1
-
9
9
9

 

Blue Planet : Complete BBC Series Special Edition 4 Disc ...

www.amazon.co.uk › DVD & Blu-ray › Television › Documentary

 

 

Freiheit - Keeping The Dream Alive lyrics. From the Original Motion Picture ... In my fantasy I remember their faces The hopes we had were much too high ...
www.lyricsmode.com/lyrics/f/freiheit/keeping_the_dream_alive.html


Tonight the rain is falling
Full of memories of people and places
And while the past is calling
In my fantasy I remember their faces

The hopes we had were much too high
Way out of reach but we have to try
The game will never be over
Because we're keeping the dream alive

I hear myself recalling
Things you said to me
The night it all started
And still the rain is falling
Makes me feel the way
I felt when we parted

The hopes we had were much too high
Way out of reach but we have to try
No need to hide no need to run
'Cause all the answers come one by one
The game will never be over
Because we're keeping the dream alive

I need you
I love you

The game will never be over
Because we're keeping the dream alive

The hopes we had were much too high
Way out of reach but we have to try
No need to hide no need to run
'Cause all the answers come one by one

The hopes we had were much too high
Way out of reach but we have to try
No need to hide no need to run
'Cause all the answers come one by one

The game will never be over
Because we're keeping the dream alive

The game will never be over
Because we're keeping the dream alive

The game will never be over

Mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm mmm.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w9aYrHzEW-w

 

 

7
BECAUSE
56
20
2
4
WE'RE
51
24
6
7
KEEPING
67
40
4
3
THE
33
15
6
5
DREAM
41
23
5
5
ALIVE
49
22
4
31
First Total
297
144
27
3+1
Add to Reduce
2+9+7
1+4+4
7+2
4
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
2+9+7
-
-
4
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

THE HOPES WE HAD WE'RE MUCH TWO HIGH WAY OUT OF REACH BUT WE HAVE TO TRY

NO NEED TO HIDE NO NEED TO RUN 'CAUSE ALL THE ANSWERS COME ONE BY ONE

THE DAY WILL NEVER BE OVER BECAUSE WE 'RE KEEPING THE DREAM ALIVE

 

 

Daily Mirror

Friday, March 6, 2009

By Martin Fricker

Front Page

"IS THIS IT ? THIS IS IT!"

 

 

I
=
9
-
2
IN
23
14
5
L
=
3
-
5
LIGHT
56
29
2
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
W
=
5
-
3
WOW
61
16
7
S
=
1
-
6
SIGNAL
62
26
8
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
S
=
1
-
4
SETI
53
17
8
L
=
3
-
2
LO
27
9
9
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
B
=
2
-
6
BEHOLD
46
28
1
S
=
1
-
4
SUCH
51
15
6
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
S
=
1
-
6
SIGNAL
62
26
8
A
=
1
-
2
AS
20
2
2
T
=
2
-
4
THAT
49
13
4
-
-
40
4
56
First Total
603
243
72
-
-
4+0
-
5+6
Add to Reduce
6+0+3
2+4+3
7+2
-
-
4
-
11
Second Total
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
1+1
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

LIFE OUT THEIR

THE TRUTH OF - AND SEARCH FOR - EXTRATERRESTRIAL INTELLIGENCE

 

 

SAINT JOHN'S CHURCH

WAKEFIELD

MEMORIAL

TO THE GLORY OF

GOD

IN REMEMBERANCE OF THE MEN FROM WRENTHORPE COLLIERY

WHO FELL IN THE GREAT WAR

1914 - 1918

THEY LOVED NOT THEIR LIVES UNTO THE DEATH

 

 

DAILY MAIL

Friday, January 20, 2006

David Wilkes and Andrew Levy

Page 20

"90 years on love letters of soldier's sweetheart have a happy ending"

 

 

DAILY MAIL

Friday, January 20, 2006

By Steve Doughty Social Affairs Correspondent

Page 13

"Nine in ten career women would put family before work"

"More than nine out of ten career woman would rather spend more time with their families than be promoted

 

"Nine in ten"

"More than nine out of ten. . ."

 

 

DIAGNOSIS OF MAN

Kenneth Walker 1943

Page 139

"Karma-yoga is the form of yoga that, if it were available, would be most applicable to European and American conditions of life. The principles that it inculcates would not only eliminate that state of fear and anxiety in which nine out of ten of us live, but actually increase the efficiency of the active life to which we are inevitably committed."

"nine out of ten"

 

 

DAILY MAIL

Monday, May 1, 2006

Ian Drury

"Injured man dies after six-hour 999 delay in sending ambulance "

"A MAN died after police and ambulance crews took six hours to respond to 999 calls that he was lying unconscious in a street"

"He dialled 999 and told Staffordshire Ambulance Service..."

"It is not clear why the ambulance service did not send paradamedics after the first 999 call."

 

 

THE FOUNTAINS OF PARADISE

Arthur C. Clarke 1979

Page 90

" 'And dont forget the Pyramids.' "

"... 'What did you call them? The best investmant in the history of mankind?

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
G
=
7
-
5
GREAT
51
24
6
P
=
7
-
7
PYRAMID
86
41
5
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
G
=
7
-
4
GIZA
43
25
7
-
-
29
-
21
First Total
234
117
27
-
-
2+9
-
2+1
Add to Reduce
2+3+4
1+1+7
2+7
-
-
11
-
3
Second Total
9
9
9
-
-
1+1
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
3
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

Pyramids of Giza - New World Encyclopedia

www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pyramids_of_Giza

25 Jun 2014 - 2.1 Pyramid of Khufu; 2.2 Pyramid of Khafre. 2.2.1 Inside the pyramid. 2.3 Pyramid of Menkaure;

 

K
=
2
-
5
KHUFU
67
22
4
K
=
2
-
6
KHAFRE
49
31
4
M
=
4
-
8
MENKAURE
88
34
7
-
-
8
-
19
First Total
204
87
15
-
-
2+9
-
1+9
Add to Reduce
2+0+4
8+7
1+5
-
-
8
-
10
Second Total
6
15
6
-
-
-
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+5
-
-
-
8
-
1
Essence of Number
6
6
6

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
22
-
5
KHUFU
67
22
22
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
8
-
-
2+2
-
-
-
6+7
2+2
2+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
5
KHUFU
14
4
4
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
5
KHUFU
5
4
4
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
8

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHAFRE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
6
A
1
1
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
6
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
R
=
9
-
3
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
31
-
44
KHAFRE
49
31
31
-
1
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
3+1
-
4+4
-
4+9
3+1
3+1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
8
KHAFRE
13
4
4
-
1
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
8
KHAFRE
4
4
4
-
1
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
34
-
8
MENKAURE
88
34
34
-
1
2
3
4
15
8
7
8
9
-
-
3+4
-
-
-
8+8
3+4
3+4
-
-
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
8
MENKAURE
16
7
7
-
1
2
3
4
6
8
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
8
MENKAURE
6
7
7
-
1
2
3
4
6
8
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
22
-
5
KHUFU
67
22
22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
KHAFRE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
-
-
31
-
6
KHAFRE
49
31
31
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
-
-
34
-
8
MENKAURE
88
34
34
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
87
-
19
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
204
105
87
-
2
6
9
4
20
12
7
16
18
-
-
8+7
-
1+9
-
2+0+4
1+0+5
8+7
-
-
-
-
-
2+0
1+2
-
1+6
1+8
-
-
15
-
10
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
15
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
7
9
-
-
1+5
-
1+0
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
1
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
6
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
7
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
-
-
87
-
19
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
204
105
87
-
2
6
9
4
20
12
7
16
18
-
-
8+7
-
1+9
-
2+0+4
1+0+5
8+7
-
-
-
-
-
2+0
1+2
-
1+6
1+8
-
-
15
-
10
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
15
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
7
9
-
-
1+5
-
1+0
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
1
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
6
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
7
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
87
-
19
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
204
105
87
-
2
6
9
4
20
12
16
18
-
-
8+7
-
1+9
-
2+0+4
1+0+5
8+7
-
-
-
-
-
2+0
1+2
1+6
1+8
-
-
15
-
10
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
15
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
9
-
-
1+5
-
1+0
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
1
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
6
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
-
-
87
-
19
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
204
105
87
-
2
6
9
4
20
12
7
16
18
-
-
8+7
-
1+9
-
2+0+4
1+0+5
8+7
-
-
-
-
-
2+0
1+2
-
1+6
1+8
-
-
15
-
10
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
15
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
7
9
-
-
1+5
-
1+0
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
1
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
6
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
7
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
87
-
19
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
204
105
87
-
2
6
9
4
20
12
16
18
-
-
8+7
-
1+9
-
2+0+4
1+0+5
8+7
-
-
-
-
-
2+0
1+2
1+6
1+8
-
-
15
-
10
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
15
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
9
-
-
1+5
-
1+0
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
1
KHUFU KHAFRE MENKAURE
6
6
6
-
2
6
9
4
2
3
7
9

 

 

Pyramids of Giza - New World Encyclopedia

www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Pyramids_of_Giza

25 Jun 2014 - 2.1 Pyramid of Khufu; 2.2 Pyramid of Khafre. 2.2.1 Inside the pyramid. 2.3 Pyramid of Menkaure; 2.4 Great Sphinx. 2.4.1 Restoration; 2.4.2

Pyramids of Giza

Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur*

UNESCO World Heritage Site

The Giza Pyramids, part of the Giza Necropolis

The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient monuments is located some eight kilometers (5 miles) inland into the desert from the old town of Giza on the Nile, some 25 kilometres (12.5 miles) southwest of Cairo city center.

The complex contains three large pyramids, the most famous of which, the Great Pyramid was built for the pharaoh Khufu and is possibly the largest building ever erected on the planet, and the last member of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. The other two pyramids, each impressive in their own right, were built for the kings Khafre and Menkaure.

Description

This Ancient Egyptian necropolis consists of the Pyramid of Khufu (known as the Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Cheops), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Chephren), and the relatively modest-size Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids, and most noticeably the Great Sphinx..

 

K
=
2
-
5
KHUFU
67
22
4
K
=
2
-
6
KHAFRE
49
31
4
M
=
4
-
8
MENKAURE
88
34
7
-
-
8
-
19
First Total
204
87
15
-
-
2+9
-
1+9
Add to Reduce
2+0+4
8+7
1+5
-
-
8
-
10
Second Total
6
15
6
-
-
-
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+5
-
-
-
8
-
1
Essence of Number
6
6
6

 

This Ancient Egyptian necropolis consists of the Pyramid of Khufu (known as the Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Cheops), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Chephren), and the relatively modest-size Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids, and most noticeably the Great Sphinx.

 

C
=
3
-
6
CHEOPS
66
30
3
C
=
3
-
8
CHEPHREN
77
50
5
M
=
4
-
9
MYKERINUS
135
45
9
-
-
10
-
23
First Total
278
125
17