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REAL = 9 9 = REAL


























Leonard Cottrell 1953

Chapter VII

Page 90












OM 6+4 = 10 1 + 0 = 1 = 10 = 6 + 4 = OM



4 x 4







36 3+6 = 9












954 691575 753365 79555 2335 954976 496352




























4 4 4 4 4 4





Nature's Numbers
Ian Stewart 1995

Numerology is the easiest-and consequently the most dangerous-method for finding patterns. It is easy because anybody can do it and dangerous for the same reason. The difficulty lies in distinguishing significant numerical patterns from accidental ones. Here's a case in point. Kepler was fascinated with patterns in nature, and he devoted much of his life to looking for them in the behaviour of the planets. He devised a simple and tidy theory for the existence of precisely six planets (in his time only Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were known). He also discovered a very strange pattern relating the orbital period of a / planet- the time it takes to go once around the Sun-to its distance from the Sun. Recall that the square of a number is what you get when you multiply it by itself: for example, the square of 4 is 4 x 4 = 16. Similarly, the cube is what you get when you multiply it by itself twice: for example, the cube of 4 is 4 x 4 x 4 = 64. Kepler found that if you take the cube of the distance of any planet from the Sun and divide it by the square of its orbital period, you always get the same number. It was not an especially elegant number, but it was the same for all six planets.

Which of these numerological observations is the more significant? The verdict of posterity is that it is the second one, the complicated and rather arbitrary calculation with squares and cubes. This numerical pattern was one of the key steps towards Isaac Newton's theory of gravity, which has explained all sorts of puzzles about the motion of stars and planets. In contrast, Kepler's neat, tidy theory for the number of planets has been buried without trace. For a start it must have been wrong, because we now know of nine planets, not six. There could be even more, farther out from the Sun, and small enough to be undetectable But more important, we no longer expect to find a neat, tidy theory for the number of planets. We think that the Solar System condensed from a cloud of gas surrounding the Sun, and the number of planets presumably depended on the amount of matter in the gas cloud, how it was distributed, and how fast and in what directions it was moving. An equally plausible gas cloud could have given us eight planets, or eleven; the number is accidental, depending on the initial conditions of the gas cloud, rather than universal, reflecting a general law of nature"

Page 6

" The big problem with numerological pattern-seeking is that it generates millions of accidentals for each universal. Nor is it always obvious which is which. For example, there are three stars, roughly equally spaced and in a straight line, in the belt of the constellation Orion. Is that a clue to a significant law of nature?
Here's a similar question. Io, Europa, and Ganymede are three of Jupiter's larger satellites. They orbit the planet in , respectively, 1.77, 3.55, and 7.16 days. Each of these numbers is almost exactly twice the previous one. Is that a significant pattern? Three stars in a row, in terms of orbital period. Which pattern if either, is an important clue..."
    "… In addition to numerical patterns there are geometric ones…"
    "… Until recently the main shapes that appealed to mathematicians were very simple ones: triangles, squares, pen / Page 7 /tagons, hexagons, circles, ellipses, spirals, cubes, spheres, cones, and so on. All of these shapes can be found in nature, although some are far more common, or more evident, than others. The rainbow, for example, is a collection of circles, one for each colour. We don't normally see the entire circle just an arc; but rainbows seen from the air can be complete circles. You also see circles in the ripples on a pond, in the human eye, and on butterflies wings.
         Talking of ripples, the flow of fluids provides an inexhaustible supply of nature's patterns. There are waves of many different kinds-surging toward a beach in parallel ranks, spreading in a V-shape behind a moving boat, radiating outward from an underwater earthquake…"
"…There are swirling spiral whirlpools and tiny vortices. And there is the apparently structureless, random frothing of turbulent flow, one of the great enigmas of mathematics and physics. There are similar patterns in the atmosphere, too, the most dramatic being the vast spiral of a hurricane…"
    "…There are also wave patterns on land. The most strikingly mathematical landscapes on Earth are to be found in the great ergs, or sand oceans, of the Arabian and Sahara deserts. Even when the wind blows steadily in a fixed direction, sand dunes form. The simplest pattern is that of transverse dunes, which-just like ocean waves-line up in parallel straight rows at right angles to the prevailing wind direction. Sometimes the rows themselves become wavy in which case they are called barchanoid ridges; sometimes they break up into / Page 8 / innumerable shield-shaped barchan dunes. If the sand is slightly moist, and there is a little vegetation to bind it together, then you may find parabolic dunes-shaped like a U, with the rounded end pointing in the direction of the wind. These sometimes occur in clusters, and they resemble the teeth of a rake. If the wind direction is variable, other forms become possible. For example, clusters of sand shaped dunes can form, each having several irregular arms radiating from a central peak. They arrange themselves in a random pattern of spots.

Chapter 6

Page 81

"Nature's symmetries can be found on every scale, from the structure of subatomic particles to that of the entire universe. Many chemical molecules are symmetric. The methane molecule is a tetrahedron - a triangular-sided pyramid - with one carbon atom at its center and four hydrogen atoms at its corners Benzene has the sixfold symmetry of a regular hexagon. The fashionable molecule buckminsterfullerene is a truncated icosahedral cage of sixty carbon atoms. (An icosahedron is a regular solid with twenty triangular faces;
"truncated" means that the corners are cut off.) Its symmetry lends it a remarkable stability, which has opened up new possibilities for organic chemistry.
    On a slightly larger scale than molecules, we find symmetries in cellular structure; at the heart of cellular replication lies a tiny piece of mechanical engineering. Deep within each / Page 82  / living cell, there is a rather shapeless structure known as the centrosome, which sprouts long thin microtubules, basic components of the cell's internal "skeleton", like a diminutive sea urchin. Centrsomes were first discovered in 1887 and play an important role in organizing cell division. How-ever in one respect the structure of the centresome is astonishingly symmetric. Inside it has two structures, known as centrioles, positioned at right angles to each other. Each centriole is cylindrical, made from twenty-seven microtubules fused together along their lengths in threes, and arranged with perfect ninefold symmetry. The microtubules themselves also have an astonishingley regular symmetric form. They are hollow tubes, made from a perfect regular checkerboard pattern of units that contain two distinct proteins, alpha- and betatubulin. One day, perhaps, we will understand why nature chose these symmetric forms. But it is amazing to see symmetric structures at the core of a living cell. "


CELL = 3533 = CELL

3533 = CELL = 3533

CELL = 3533 = CELL







It's a kind of magic. Magic magic magic (magic) Ha ha ha haa - it's magic. Ha haa. Yeah yeah. Wooh It's a kind of magic. Return to Queen Lyrics » ...

Queen - "It's A Kind Of Magic" lyrics (Roger Taylor)

It's a kind of magic
A kind of magic - no way
One dream, one soul, one prize
One goal, one golden glance of what should be
It's a kind of magic
One shaft of light that shows the way
No mortal man can win this day
It's a kind of magic
The bell that rings inside your mind
Is challenging the doors of time
It's a kind of magic
The waiting seems eternity
The day will dawn of sanity
Ooh ooh ooh ooh
Is this a kind of magic'
It's a kind of magic
There can be only one
This rage that lasts a thousand years
Will soon be done
This flame that burns inside of me
I'm hearing secret harmonies
It's a kind of magic
The bell that rings inside your mind
Is challenging the doors of time
It's a kind of magic
It's a kind of magic
This rage that lasts a thousand years
Will soon be, will soon be, will soon be done
This is (this is) a kind (a kind) of magic (yeah)
There can be only one one one one
This rage that lasts a thousand years
Will soon be done - done
Magic - it's a kind of magic
It's a kind of magic
Magic magic magic (magic)
Ha ha ha haa - it's magic
Ha haa
Yeah yeah
It's a kind of magic




words: Leonard Cohen music: Buffy Sainte-Marie


God is alive; Magic is afoot
God is alive; Magic is afoot
God is alive; Magic is afoot
Alive is afoot.....
Magic never died.

God never sickened;
many poor men lied
many sick men lied
Magic never weakened
Magic never hid
Magic always ruled
God is afoot
God never died.

God was ruler
though his funeral lengthened
Though his mourners thickened
Magic never fled
Though his shrouds were hoisted
the naked God did live
Though his words were twisted
the naked Magic thrived
Though his death was published
round and round the world
the heart did not believe

Many hurt men wondered
many struck men bled
Magic never faltered
Magic always led.
Many stones were rolled
but God would not lie down
Many wild men lied
many fat men listened
Though they offered stones
Magic still was fed
Though they locked their coffers
God was always served.


Magic is afoot. God rules.
Alive is afoot. Alive is in command.
Many weak men hungered
Many strong men thrived
Though they boasted solitude
God was at their side
Nor the dreamer in his cell
nor the captain on the hill
Magic is alive
Though his death was pardoned
round and round the world
the heart did not believe.

Though laws were carved in marble
they could not shelter men
Though altars built in parliaments
they could not order men
Police arrested Magic
and Magic went with them,
for Magic loves the hungry.

But Magic would not tarry
it moves from arm to arm
it would not stay with them
Magic is afoot
it cannot come to harm
it rests in an empty palm
it spawns in an empty mind
but Magic is no instrument
Magic is the end.

Many men drove Magic
but Magic stayed behind
Many strong men lied
they only passed through Magic
and out the other side
Many weak men lied
they came to God in secret
and though they left him nourished
they would not say who healed
Though mountains danced before them
they said that God was dead
Though his shrouds were hoisted
the naked God did live


This I mean to whisper to my mind
This I mean to laugh with in my mind
This I mean my mind to serve 'til
service is but Magic
moving through the world
and mind itself is Magic
coursing through the flesh
and flesh itself is Magic
dancing on a clock
and time itself the magic length of God




ABRACADABRA =52 5+2 =7= 5+2 = 52 ABRACADABRA

ABRACADABRA =25 2+5 =7= 2+5 = 25 ABRACADABRA




ABRAHADABRA = 57 5+7 = 12 1+2 =3= 1+2 = 12 5+7 57 = ABRAHADABRA

ABRAHADABRA = 57 5+7 = 12 1+2 =3= 1+2 = 12 5+7 57 = ABRAHADABRA



Abrahadabra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Abrahadabra is a word that first publicly appeared in The Book of the Law, the central sacred text of Thelema. Its author, Aleister Crowley, described it as ...

Description - Mystical interpretations - Quotes from Liber Legis - Cached - Similar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation, search
Core topics
The Book of the Law
Aleister Crowley
True Will · 93

Thelemic mysticism
The Great Work
Holy Guardian Angel
The Gnostic Mass

Thelemic texts
Works of Crowley
The Holy Books
Thelemite texts

A∴A∴ · EGC · OTO

Nuit · Hadit · Horus
Babalon · Chaos
Baphomet · Choronzon
Aiwass · Ma'at

Other topics
Stele of Revealing
Unicursal Hexagram
Abramelin oil
Thoth tarot deck


This box: view • talk • edit
Abrahadabra is a word that first publicly appeared in The Book of the Law, the central sacred text of Thelema. Its author, Aleister Crowley, described it as the "the Word of the Aeon, which signifieth The Great Work accomplished."[1] This is in reference to his belief that the writing of Liber Legis (another name for "The Book of the Law") heralded a new Aeon for mankind that was ruled by the god Ra-Hoor-Khuit (a form of Horus). Abrahadabra is, therefore, the "magical formula" of this new age. It is not to be confused with the Word of the Law of the Aeon, which is Thelema, meaning Will.

Contents [hide]
1 Description
2 Mystical interpretations
2.1 Gematria
2.2 Other interpretations
3 Quotes from Liber Legis
4 Notes
5 References
6 External links

[edit] Description
Crowley replaced the C in Abrahadabra with an H, which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in their Neophyte ritual linked with Breath and Life[2] as well as with the god Horus.[3] Aleister Crowley had taken the place of Horus or the Hierus officer[3] in the Golden Dawn's Neophyte ritual,[4] which means that he personally gave the response explaining the meaning of the letter H.

Crowley explains in his essay Gematria that he changed the magick word to include 'H' because of qabalistic methods. He appears to say that this happened before his January 1901 meeting with Oscar Eckenstein, one of his teachers. At this meeting Eckenstein ordered Crowley to put aside magick for the moment, and to practice meditation or concentration.[5] In Gematria, Crowley says he took great interest in Abrahadabra, and its qabalistic number 418, at the time someone ordered him to "abandon the study of magic and the Qabalah".

The Word 'Abrahadabra' appears repeatedly in the 1904 invocation of Horus that preceded the writing of Liber Legis and led to the founding of Thelema.[6] It also appears in a May 1901 diary that Crowley published in The Equinox.[7]

The essay Gematria gives Hindu, Christian, and "Unsectarian" versions of the problem that Crowley intended this magick word to answer. He also gives a qabalistic equivalent for each phrasing, and a brief symbolic answer for each. The unsectarian version reads, "I am the finite square; I wish to be one with the infinite circle." Its equivalent refers to "the Cross of Extension" and "the infinite Rose." Crowley's numerological explanation of ABRAHADABRA focuses mainly on this last formulation and the answer to it.

Abrahadabra is also referred to as the "Word of Double Power". More specifically, it represents the uniting of the Microcosm with the Macrocosm—represented by the pentagram and the hexagram, the rose and the cross, the circle and the square, the 5 and the 6, etc.—also called the attainment of the Knowledge and Conversation of one's Holy Guardian Angel. In Commentaries (1996), Crowley says that the word is a symbol of the “establishment of the pillar or phallus of the the void of the Microcosm.”

[edit] Mystical interpretations
[edit] Gematria
As with most things found in the mystical works of Aleister Crowley, the word Abrahadabra can be examined using the qabalistic method of gematria, which is a form of numerology, whereby correspondences are made based on numerical values.

ABRAHADABRA has 11 letters
ABRAHADABRA = 1+2+2+1+5+1+4+1+2+2+1 = 22
The five letters in the word are: A, the Crown; B, the Wand; D, the Cup; H, the Sword; R, the Rosy Cross; and refer further to Amoun the Father, Thoth His messenger, and Isis, Horus, Osiris, the divine-human triad.
Also 418 = ATh IAV, the Essence of IAO
418= BVLShKIN, or Boleskine
418= RA HVVR, or Ra Hoor
418= The sum of all integers between 13 and 31 inclusive.
Abrahadabra is from Abrasax, Father Sun, which = 365 [8]
418 = 22 x 19 Manifestation
[edit] Other interpretations
In Aramaic this word roughly translates into "I will create as I speak."

Had is the keyword of Abrahadabra. Had is another name for Hadit, the second Speaker in Liber Legis ("The Book of the Law").
"ABRAHADABRA is "The key of the rituals" because it expresses the Magical Formulae of uniting various complementary ideas; especially the Five of the Microcosm with the Six of the Macrocosm."[9]
"Abrahadabra is the glyph of the blending of the 5 and the 6, the Rose and the Cross."[9]
[edit] Quotes from Liber Legis
"Abrahadabra; the reward of Ra Hoor Khut." (AL III:1)
"This book shall be translated into all tongues: but always with the original in the writing of the Beast; for in the chance shape of the letters and their position to one another: in these are mysteries that no Beast shall divine. Let him not seek to try: but one cometh after him, whence I say not, who shall discover the Key of it all. Then this line drawn is a key: then this circle squared in its failure is a key also. And Abrahadabra. It shall be his child & that strangely. Let him not seek after this; for thereby alone can he fall from it." (AL III:47)
"The ending of the words is the Word Abrahadabra." (AL III:75)
[edit] Notes
1.^ (Crowley 1997, Liber Samekh)
2.^ Hiero: Is there any peculiarity in these names? Hierus: They all commence with the letter 'H'. Hiero: Of what is this letter a symbol? Hierus: Of life; because this letter 'H' is our mode of representing the ancient Greek aspirate or breathing, and Breath is the evidence of Life. The Golden Dawn by Israel Regardie, p. 118.
3.^ a b Golden Dawn links Horus with the letter H, p. 345, and with the Hierus, p. 338, 352.
4.^ "The Book of Results" as presented in The Equinox of the Gods, Chapter 6.
5.^ Sutin, Do What Thou Wilt, p.85
6.^ (The Equinox I(7), 1912)
7.^ "THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON THE KING. IV" in The Equinox I(4), 1910
8.^ (Crowley 1996, p. 24)
9.^ a b "The Old and New Commentaries to Liber AL". Retrieved 2010-01-08.
[edit] References
Crowley, Aleister (1997), "Liber Samekh", Magick: Book 4, York Beach, ME: Weiser,
Crowley, Aleister (1996), The Law is for All, Tempe, AZ: New Falcon Publications,
Thelemapedia. (2004). Abrahadabra. Retrieved April 16, 2006.
Crowley, Aleister. (1997). Magick: Book 4. York Beach, Me. : S. Weiser.
____. (1996). Commentaries on the Holy Books and Other Papers : the Equinox,IV(1). York Beach, Me. : S. Weiser.
____. (1982). 777 and Other Qabalistic Writings. York Beach, Me. : S. Weiser.
Regardie, Israel. (1989). The original account of the teachings, rites and ceremonies of The Golden Dawn. Sixth Edition, Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications.
[edit] External links
The Abrahadabra Institute, an alchemical perspective on Abrahadabra
"The Abrahadabra Key", An essay by Ibisis.
"Abrahadabra; some thoughts on the word", An essay by Mark Stavish
[hide]v • d • eThelema

Important elements The Book of the Law (Liber AL vel Legis) · Aleister Crowley · Thelemic mysticism · True Will · The Great Work · Holy Guardian Angel ·Abrahadabra· Stele of Revealing · 93 · Aeon of Horus - Abyss - Magick

Thelema and religion The Gnostic Mass · Holy Books of Thelema - Saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica

Godforms Nuit · Hadit · Ra-Hoor-Khuit · Aiwass · Babalon · Baphomet · Chaos · Ma'at · Choronzon · Ankh-af-na-khonsu

Organizations A∴A∴ · Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica · Ordo Templi Orientis · Typhonian Order · The Open Source Order of the Golden Dawn

Personalities Kenneth Anger - Allan Bennett · Emile Brugsch - Mary Butts · Marjorie Cameron - Aleister Crowley · Lon Milo DuQuette - J.F.C. Fuller - Karl Germer - Kenneth Grant - Lady Frieda Harris · Leah Hirsig · Hymenaeus Beta - Charles Stansfeld Jones - George Cecil Jones · Carl Kellner - Rose Edith Kelly · Grady McMurtry - Victor Benjamin Neuburg · Jack Parsons - Israel Regardie - Theodor Reuss · Leila Waddell (Laylah) · Jane Wolfe

Thelemite texts Works of Aleister Crowley · Libri of Aleister Crowley · The Book of the Law (Liber AL vel Legis) - The Equinox · Liber 777 · Magick (Book 4) · Confessions · The Book of Lies · Liber OZ (Liber 77) - The Equinox of the Gods - The Law is for All - Konx om Pax · The Book of Thoth · The Vision and the Voice - Little Essays Toward Truth - Eight Lectures on Yoga - Magick Without Tears - The Blue Equinox - Liber Aleph - Moonchild (novel) · Diary of a Drug Fiend (novel) - White Stains (poetry) - Clouds Without Water (poetry) - Collected Works of Aleister Crowley 1905-1907 (poems, plays, essays) - The Stratagem and other Stories (short stories)

Magick and ritual Magick · Oil of Abramelin · Cake of Light - Bornless Ritual - Eroto-comatose lucidity - Gematria · Thoth tarot deck · Mass of the Phoenix - Hermetic Qabalah · Sex magick - Astrology · Yoga - Obeah and Wanga - Babalon Working - Ceremonial magick

Other topics Unicursal hexagram · Body of Light · Night of Pan · City of the Pyramids · Boleskine House - Abbey of Thelema · Rites of Eleusis - Magical formula

Categories Thelema · Thelemites · Thelemite texts.


Palenque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Palenque (Bàak' in Modern Maya) was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the seventh century CE. After its decline it was absorbed into ...

Name and etymology - History - Art and architecture


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the ancient Maya site. For other meanings of "Palenque", see Palenque (disambiguation).
Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque*
UNESCO World Heritage Site


State Party Mexico
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 411
Region** Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Palenque (Bàak' in Modern Maya) was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the seventh century CE. After its decline it was absorbed into the jungle, but has been excavated and restored and is now a famous archaeological site attracting thousands of visitors. It is located near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map) about 150 meters above sea-level.

Palenque is a medium-sized site, much smaller than such huge sites as Tikal or Copán, but it contains some of the finest architecture, sculpture, roof comb and bas-relief carvings the Maya produced. Much of the history of Palenque has been reconstructed from reading the hieroglyphic inscription on the many monuments, and historians now have a long sequence of the ruling dynasty of Palenque in the seventh century and extensive knowledge of the city states rivalry with other states such as Calakmul and Toniná. The most famous ruler of Palenque is Pacal the Great whose tomb has been found and excavated in the temple of the inscriptions.

Contents [hide]
1 Name and etymology
1.1 Toponyms and associated emblem glyphs in Palenque texts
2 History
2.1 Dynastic list
2.2 Early Classic period
2.3 Late Classic period
2.4 Abandonment
3 Art and architecture
3.1 Palace
3.2 Temple of the Inscriptions
3.3 Temples of the Cross group
3.4 Other Notable Constructions
4 Modern investigations
5 See also
6 Notes
7 References
8 External links

[edit] Name and etymology
The site of Palenque had been abandoned by the Maya people for several centuries, when the Spanish explorers arrived in Chiapas in the 16th century. The first European to visit the ruins and publish an account was Priest Pedro Lorenzo de la Nada in 1567; at the time the local Chol Maya called it Otolum meaning "Land with strong houses", de la Nada roughly translated this into Spanish to give the site the name "Palenque", meaning "fortification". Palenque also became the name for the town (Santo Domingo del Palenque) which was built over some peripheral ruins down in the valley from the main ceremonial center of the ancient city.

An ancient name for the central core of the city currently consolidated was Lakam Ha, which translates as "Big Water", for the numerous springs and wide cascades that are found within the site.[1] Palenque was the capital of the important Classic period Maya city-state of B'aakal or B'aak (Bone), after one of the city's most frequently occurring Emblem Glyphs.[2]

[edit] Toponyms and associated emblem glyphs in Palenque texts
Other important locations and emblem glyphs that occur in Palenque texts include the following:

Mat or Matal: Often spelled with the head of a cormorant, the Mat emblem glyph is used by mythological entities as well as rulers.[3]
Matawil or Matwiil is a mythological location likely connected to the Mat emblem glyph where important events in Palenque mythology occurred.
Kan is the ancient name of the site of Calakmul, one of the largest cities in the Maya world. It was responsible for attacks against Palenque in AD 599 and 611.
Sak Nuk Naah (White Skin House) — The proper name of House E of the Palace.
Toktan: The founder of the dynasty K'uk' B'alam and other rulers use this emblem glyph.
Ux Te K'uh: An important regional center and the polity from which K'inich Kan B'ahlam's grandfather came.[4]
[edit] History

Temple of the Cross.Much of the Early Classic history of the city still awaits the archaeologist's trowel. However, from the extent of the surveyed site and the reference to Early Classic rulers in the inscriptional record of the Late Classic, it is clear Palenque's history is much longer than we currently know. The fact that early ajaw (king or lord) and mythological beings used a variety of emblem glyphs in their titles indeed suggests a complex early history. For instance, K'uk' B'ahlam, the supposed founder of the Palenque dynasty, is called a Toktan Ajaw in the text of the Temple of the Foliated Cross.

The famous structures that we know today probably represent a rebuilding effort in response to the attacks by the city of Calakmul and its client states in 599 and 611.[5] One of the main figures responsible for rebuilding Palenque and for a renaissance in the city's art and architecture is also one of the best-known Maya Ajaw, K'inich Janaab' Pakal (Pacal the Great), who ruled from 615 to 683. He is best known through his funerary monument, dubbed the Temple of Inscriptions after the lengthy text preserved in the temple's superstructure. At the time Alberto Ruz Lhuillier excavated Pakal's tomb it was the richest and best preserved of any scientifically excavated burial then known from the ancient Americas. It held this position until the discovery of the rich Moche burials at Sipan, Peru and the recent discoveries at Copan and Calakmul.

Beside the attention that K'inich Janaab' Pakal's tomb brought to Palenque, the city is historically significant for its extensive hieroglyphic corpus composed during the reigns of Janaab' Pakal his son K'inich Kan B'ahlam and his grandson K'inich Akal Mo' Naab', and for being the location where Heinrich Berlin[6] and later Linda Schele and Peter Mathews outlined the first dynastic list for any Maya city.[7] The work of Tatiana Proskouriakoff as well as that of Berlin, Schele, Mathews, and others initiated the intense historical investigations that characterized much of the scholarship on the ancient Maya from the 1960s to the present.[8] The extensive iconography and textual corpus has also allowed for study of Classic period Maya Mythology[9] and ritual practice.[10]

[edit] Dynastic list
A list of known Maya rulers of the city, with dates of their reigns:

K'inich Kan B'alam II ("Chan Bahlam II"). (Relief at "Temple of the Cross", as drawn by Frederick Catherwood in 1840.)K'uk B'alam I 11 March 431 - 435
"Casper" (nickname; ancient name not translated; also known as "11 Rabbit") 10 August 435 - 487
B'utz Aj Sak Chiik 29 July 487 - 501
Ahkal Mo' Naab' I 5 June 501 - 1 December 524
vacant ?
K'an Joy Chitam I 25 February 529 - 8 February 565
Ahkal Mo' Naab' II 4 May 565 - 23 July 570
vacant ?
Kan B'alam I 8 April 572 - 3 February 583
Yohl Ik'nal (female ruler) 583-604
Aj Ne' Yohl Mat 605-612
Pacal I 612
Sak K'uk' (female) 612-615 d. 640
K'inich Janaab' Pakal ("Pacal II"; "Pacal the Great") 615-683
K'inich Kan B'alam II ("Chan Bahlam II") 683-702
K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II ("Kan Xul II") 702-711 d. 722?
Xoc (regent for Kan-Joy Chitam II) 711?-c. 722
K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab' III ("Chaacal III") 3 January 722 - after 729
K'inich Janaab' Pakal ("Pacal III") fl. c. 742
K'inich K'uk B'alam II 8 March 765 - ?
Wak Kimi Janhb' Pakal ("Pacal IV") 17 November 799-?
[edit] Early Classic period
The first ajaw, or king, of B'aakal that we know of was K'uk Balam (Quetzal Jaguar), who governed for four years starting in the year 431. After him, a king came to power, nicknamed Gasparín by archaeologists. The two next kings were probably Gasparín's sons. Little was known about the first of these, B'utz Aj Sak Chiik, until 1994, when a tablet was found describing a ritual for the king. The first tablet mentioned his successor Ahkal Mo' Naab I as a teenage prince, and therefore it is believed that there was a family relation between them. For unknown reasons, Akhal Mo' Naab I had great prestige, so the Kings who succeeded him were proud to be his descendants.

When Ahkal Mo' Naab I died in 524, there was an interregnum of four years, before the following king was crowned en Toktán in 529. K'an Joy Chitam I governed for 36 years. His sons Ahkal Mo' Naab II and K'an B'alam I were the first kings who used the title Kinich, which means the great son. This word was used also by later kings. B'alam I was succeeded in 583 by Yok Iknal, who is supposedly his daughter. The inscriptions found in Palenque document a battle that occurred under her government in which troops from Calakmul invaded and sacked Palenque, a military feat without known precedents. These events took place on April 21, 599.

A second victory by Calakmul occurred some twelve years later, in 611, under the government of Aj Ne' Yohl Mat, son of Yol Iknal. In this occasion, the king of Calakmul entered Palenque in person, consolidating a significant military disaster, which was followed by an epoch of political disorder. Aj Ne' Yohl Mat was to die in 612.

[edit] Late Classic period

A view of the main plaza of Palenque from the Temple of the Foliated Cross.B'aakal began the Late Classic period in the throes of the disorder created by the defeats before Calakmul. The glyphic panels at the Temple of Inscriptions, which records the events at this time, relates that some fundamental annual religious ceremonies were not performed in 613, and at this point states: "Lost is the divine lady, lost is the king."[11] Mentions of the government at the time have not been found.

It is believed that after the death of Aj Ne' Yohl Mat, Janaab Pakal, sometimes called Pakal I, took power thanks to a political agreement. Janaab Pakal assumed the functions of the ajaw (king) but never was crowned. He was succeeded in 612 by his daughter, the queen Sak K'uk', who governed for only three years until her son was old enough to rule. (See citation hereof in Spanish wikipedia.) It is considered that the dynasty was reestablished from then on, so B'aakal retook the path of glory and splendor.

The grandson of Janaab Pakal is the most famous of the Mayan kings, K'inich Janaab' Pakal, also known as Pakal the Great. Starting at 12 years of age, he reigned in Palenque from 615 to 683. Known as the favorite of the gods, he carried Palenque to new levels of splendor, in spite of having come to power when the city was at a low point. Pakal married the princess of Oktán, Lady Tzakbu Ajaw (also known as Ahpo-Hel) in 624 and had at least three children.

During his government, most of the palaces and temples of Palenque were constructed; the city flourished as never before, eclipsing Tikal. The central complex, known as The Palace, was enlarged and remodeled on various occasions, notably in the years 654, 661, and 668. In this structure, is a text describing how in that epoch Palenque was newly allied with Tikal, and also with Yaxchilan, and that they were able to capture the six enemy kings of the alliance. Not much more had been translated from the text.

After the death of Pakal in 683, his older son K'inich Kan B'alam assumed the kingship of B'aakal, who in turn was succeeded in 702 by his brother K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II. The first continued the architectural and sculptural works that were begun by his father, as well as finishing the construction of the famous tomb of Pakal. Furthermore, he began ambitious projects, like the Group of the Crosses. Thanks to numerous works begun during his government, now we have portraits of this king, found in various sculptures. His brother succeeded him continuing with the same enthusiasm of construction and art, reconstructing and enlarging the north side of the Palace. Thanks to the reign of these three kings, B'aakal had a century of growing and splendor.

In 711, Palenque was sacked by the realm of Toniná, and the old king K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II was taken prisoner. It is not known what the final destination of the king was, and it is presumed that he was executed in Toniná. For 10 years there was no king. Finally, K'inich Ahkal Mo' Nab' III was crowned in 722. Although the new king belonged to the royalty, there is no reason to be sure that he was the direct inheritor direct of K'inich K'an Joy Chitam II. It is believed, therefore, that this coronation was a break in the dynastic line, and probably K'inich Ahkal Nab' arrived to power after years of maneuvering and forging political alliances. This king, his son, and grandson governed until the end of the century. Little is known about this period, except that, among other events, the war with Toniná continued, where there are hieroglyphics that record a new defeat of Palenque.

[edit] Abandonment
During the 8th century, B'aakal came under increasing stress, in concert with most other Classic Mayan city-states, and there was no new elite construction in the ceremonial center sometime after 800. An agricultural population continued to live here for a few generations, then the site was abandoned and was slowly grown over by the forest. The district was very sparsely populated when the Spanish first arrived in the 1520s.

[edit] Art and architecture
Important structures at Palenque include:

[edit] Palace

Stone carving of Pacal the Great.The Palace, actually a complex of several connected and adjacent buildings and courtyards built up over several generations on a wide artificial terrace. The Palace houses many fine sculptures and bas-relief carvings in addition to the distinctive four-story tower.

[edit] Temple of the Inscriptions
Main article: Temple of the Inscriptions
The Temple of Inscriptions was begun perhaps as early as 675[12] as the funerary monument of Hanab-Pakal. The temple superstructure houses the second longest glyphic text known from the Maya world (the longest is the Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copan). The Temple of the Inscriptions records approximately 180 years of the city's history from the 4th through 12th K'atun. The focal point of the narrative records K'inich Janaab' Pakal's K'atun period-ending rituals focused on the icons of the city's patron deities prosaically known collectively as the Palenque Triad or individually as GI, GII, and GIII.[13]

The Pyramid measure 60 meters wide 42.5 meters deep 27.2 meters high The Summit temple measure 25.5 meters wide 10.5 meters deep 11.4 meters high. The largest stones weigh 12 to 15 tons. These were on top of the Pyramid. The Total volume of pyramid and temple is 32,500 cu. meters [14]

In 1952 Alberto Ruz Lhuillier removed a stone slab in the floor of the back room of the temple superstructure to reveal a passageway (filled in shortly before the city's abandonment and reopened by archeologists) leading through a long stairway to Pakal's tomb. The tomb itself is remarkable for its large carved sarcophagus, the rich ornaments accompanying Pakal, and for the stucco sculpture decorating the walls of the tomb. Unique to Pakal's tomb is the psychoduct, which leads from the tomb itself, up the stairway and through a hole in the stone covering the entrance to the burial. This psychoduct is perhaps a physical reference to concepts about the departure of the soul at the time of death in Maya eschatology where in the inscriptions the phrase ochb'ihaj sak ik'il (the white breath road-entered) is used to refer to the leaving of the soul.

The much-discussed iconography of the sarcophagus lid depicts Pakal in the guise of one of the manifestations of the Maya Maize God emerging from the maws of the underworld.[15]

[edit] Temples of the Cross group
The Temple of the Cross, Temple of the Sun, and Temple of the Foliated Cross. This is a set of graceful temples atop step pyramids, each with an elaborately carved relief in the inner chamber depicting two figures presenting ritual objects and effigies to a central icon. Earlier interpretations had argued that the smaller figure was that of K'inich Janaab' Pakal while the larger figure was K'inich Kan B'ahlam. However, it is now known based on a better understanding of the iconography and epigraphy that the central tablet depicts two images of Kan B'ahlam. The smaller figure shows K'inich Kan B'ahlam during a rite of passage ritual at the age of six ( 9 Akbal 6 Xul) while the larger is of his accession to kingship at the age of 48.[16] These temples were named by early explorers; the cross-like images in two of the reliefs actually depict the tree of creation at the center of the world in Maya mythology.

K'inich Kan B'alam II Detail from the Temple XVII Tablet.
Reconstruction of the Temples of the Cross Group.[edit] Other Notable Constructions
The Aqueduct constructed with great stone blocks with a three-meter-high vault to make the Otulum River flow underneath the floor of Palenque's main plaza.
The Temple of The Lion at a distance of some 200 meters south of the main group of temples; its name came from the elaborate bas-relief carving of a king seated on a throne in the form of a jaguar.
Structure XII with a bas-relief carving of the God of Death.
Temple of the Count another elegant Classic Palenque temple, which got its name from the fact that early explorer Jean Frederic Waldeck lived in the building for some time, and Waldeck claimed to be a Count.
The site also has a number of other temples, tombs, and elite residences, some a good distance from the center of the site, a court for playing the Mesoamerican Ballgame, and an interesting stone bridge over the Otulum River some distance below the Aqueduct.

[edit] Modern investigations

Detail of a relief at the Palace drawn by Ricardo Almendáriz during the Del Rio expedition in 1787Palenque is perhaps the most studied and written about of Maya sites.

After de la Nada's brief account of the ruins no attention was paid to them until 1773 when one Don Ramon de Ordoñez y Aguilar examined Palenque and sent a report to the Capitan General in Antigua Guatemala, a further examination was made in 1784 saying that the ruins were of particular interest, so two years later surveyor and architect Antonio Bernasconi was sent with a small military force under Colonel Antonio del Río to examine the site in more detail. Del Rio's forces smashed through several walls to see what could be found, doing a fair amount of damage to the Palace, while Bernasconi made the first map of the site as well as drawing copies of a few of the bas-relief figures and sculptures. Draughtsman Luciano Castañeda made more drawings in 1807, and a book on Palenque, Descriptions of the Ruins of an Ancient City, discovered near Palenque, was published in London in 1822 based on the reports of those last two expeditions together with engravings based on Bernasconi and Castañedas drawings; two more publications in 1834 contained descriptions and drawings based on the same sources.

Juan Galindo visited Palenque in 1831, and filed a report with the Central American government. He was the first to note that the figures depicted in Palenque's ancient art looked like the local Native Americans; some other early explorers, even years later, attributed the site to such distant peoples as Egyptians, Polynesians, or the Lost Tribes of Israel.

Starting in 1832 Jean Frederic Waldeck spent two years at Palenque making numerous drawings, but most of his work was not published until 1866. Meanwhile the site was visited in 1840 first by Patrick Walker and Herbert Caddy on a mission from the governor of British Honduras, and then by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood who published an illustrated account the following year which was greatly superior to the previous accounts of the ruins.

Désiré Charnay made the first photographs of Palenque in 1858, and returned in 1881–1882. Alfred Maudslay encamped at the ruins in 1890–1891 and made extensive photographs of all the art and inscriptions he could find, and made paper and plaster molds of many of the inscriptions, setting a high standard for all future investigators to follow.

Several other expeditions visited the ruins before Frans Blom of Tulane University in 1923, who made superior maps of both the main site and various previously neglected outlying ruins and filed a report for the Mexican government on recommendations on work that could be done to preserve the ruins.

A bas-relief in the Palenque museum that depicts Upakal K'inich, the son of K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III.From 1949 through 1952 Alberto Ruz Lhuillier supervised excavations and consolidations of the site for Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH); it was Ruz Lhuillier who was the first person to gaze upon Pacal The Great's tomb in over a thousand years. Further INAH work was done in lead by Jorge Acosta into the 1970s.

Housing blocks just below the pyramids would have been reserved for the powerful in Maya society.In 1973 the first of the very productive Palenque Mesa Redonda (Round table) conferences was held here on the inspiration of Merle Greene Robertson; thereafter every few years leading Mayanists would meet at Palenque to discuss and examine new findings in the field. Meanwhile Robertson was conducting a detailed examination of all art at Palenque, including recording all the traces of color on the sculpture.

The 1970s also saw a small museum built at the site.

In the last 15 or 20 years, a great deal more of the site has been excavated, but currently, archaeologists estimate that only 5% of the total city has been uncovered

Palenque remains much visited, and perhaps evokes more affection in visitors than any other Mesoamerican ruin.












William Shakespeare

Circa 1564 - 1616

Act 1 Scene 3


First Witch

I myself have all the other,
And the very ports they blow,
All the quarters that they know
I' the shipman's card.
I will drain him dry as hay:
Sleep shall neither night nor day
Hang upon his pent-house lid;
He shall live a man forbid:
Weary se'nnights nine times nine
Shall he dwindle, peak and pine:
Though his bark cannot be lost,
Yet it shall be tempest-tost.
Look what I have.


The weird sisters, hand in hand,
Posters of the sea and land,
Thus do go about, about:
Thrice to thine and thrice to mine
And thrice again, to make up nine.
Peace! the charm's wound up.



Daily Mail

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Answers to Correspondents Compiled by Charles Legge

Page 59


I know the phrase 'curiosity killed the cat', but I have recently been told it continues 'satisfaction brought it back'. What is the origin of this?

ORIGINALLY 'care' killed the cat, not curiosity. That form of the expression is first found in Ben Jonson's play Every Man In His Humour, in 1598: 'Helterskelter, hang sorrow, care'll kill a cat, uptails all and a louse for the hangman.' In this sense, care meant 'worry or sorrow'. rather than the modern 'look after or provide for'. The play was first performed by the Lord Chamberlain's men, a troupe of actors of which Shakespeare was a member.

He obviously liked the line because he used it the following year in Much Ado About Nothing: 'What, courage man! What though care killed a cat, thou hast mettle in thee to kill care.'

The notion of curiosity has been frowned on, particularly by early theologians. St Augustine wrote in confessions (AD397) 'God fashioned hell for the inquisitive'', so the idea of curiosity killing the cat would seem logical.

Yet as late as 1898 the original form was still in use. Brewster's Dictionary Of Phrase And Fable had: 'Care killed the Cat. It is said that a cat has nine lives, but care would wear them all out.'

The. earliest known printed reference is in the O. Henry short story Schools And Schools from 1909: 'Curiosity can do more things than Kill a cat; and if emotions. well recognised as feminine, are inimical to feline life, then jealously would soon leave the world catless.'

The rejoinder 'satisfaction brought it back' is a curiosity in itself; the idea is obvious: if you are satisfied with your lot, you are unlikely to be curious about an alternative life.

When.the rejoinder was coined is uncertain, but it dates from the mid to late 20th century and seems to have been part of a ditty popularised
by a murderous Jack Nicholson in the movie The Shining (1980)

Curiosity killed the cat
Satisfaction brought it back
Safe and sound.
From hcad, to ground
From ground
It was safe and sound.'

Jon Welham, Halifax.






Cecil Balmond 1998

Page 214/Page 215










Cecil Balmond 1998

Cycles and Patterns

Page 165


"The essence of mathematics is to look for patterns.

Our minds seem to be organised to search for relationships and sequences. We look for hidden orders.

These intuitions seem to be more important than the facts themselves, for there is always the thrill at finding something, a pattern, it is a discovery - what was unknown is now revealed. Imagine looking up at the stars and finding the zodiac!

Searching out patterns is a pure delight.

Suddenly the counters fall into place and a connection is found, not necessarily a geometric one, but a relationship between numbers, pictures of the mind, that were not obvious before. There is that excitement of finding order in something that was otherwise hidden.

And there is the knowledge that a huge unseen world lurks behind the facades we see of the numbers themselves."

The 99 Attributes of Allah

I found many different versions of the 99 names. The above 99 are on a poster I have. Another list includes Al-Mu'tiy - The Bestower, The Giver and does not have Al- Ahad - The One. Another list did not have Al- Ahad -The Sustainer, The Provider but did have Al - Razzaaq The Noble, The One who is Majid.

Allah (subhanahu wa ta' ala)s' There are a couple of evidences, one is the du`aa where one calls upon Allah by the names He (subhanahu wa ta`ala) has kept to Himself (obviously not taking these names since Allah has not revealed them to us); another is the fact that in the narrations of the famous ninety nine names hadith that do contain 99 names, the names are not consistent between narrations (for example, imam al-bayhaqi reports two versions of this hadith, with different 99 names in each). It is suggested by one commentator that the names were not explicitly stated by the rasul (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam).







99 Names of God - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Names of God in the Qur'an - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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words and music by eden ahbez

Nature Boy

Nat King Cole

There was a boy
A very strange enchanted boy
They say he wandered very far, very far
Over land and sea
A little shy and sad of eye
But very wise was he

And then one day
A magic day he passed my way
And while we spoke of many things
Fools and kings
This he said to me
"the greatest thing you’ll ever learn
Is just to love and be loved in return"

"the greatest thing you’ll ever learn
Is just to love and be loved in return"



Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900)


"J'ai baisé ta bouche[,] Iokanaan"

"J' kissed your mouth [,] Iokanaan"

SALOME: [Holding the severed head of Iokanaan.] Ah! thou wouldst not suffer me to kiss thy mouth, Iokanaan. Well! I will kiss it now. I will bite it with my teeth as one bites a ripe fruit. Yes, I will kiss thy mouth, Iokanaan. I said it; did I not say it? I said it. Ah! I will kiss it now. But wherefore dost thou not look at me, Iokanaan? Thine eyes that were so terrible, so full of rage and scorn, are shut now. Wherefore are they shut? Open thine eyes! Lift up thine eyelids, Iokanaan! Wherefore dost thou not look at me? Art thou afraid of me, Iokanaan, that thou wilt not look at me? And thy tongue, that was like a red snake darting poison, it moves no more, it speaks no words, Iokanaan, that scarlet viper that spat its venom upon me. It is strange, is it not? How is it that the red viper stirs no longer? Thou wouldst have none of me, Iokanaan. Thou rejectedest me. Thou didst speak evil words against me. Thou didst bear thyself toward me as to a harlot, as to a woman that is a wanton, to me, Salome, daughter of Herodias, Princess of Judaea! Well, I still live, but thou art dead, and thy head belongs to me. I can do with it what I will. I can throw it to the dogs and to the birds of the air. That which the dogs leave, the birds of the air shall devour. Ah, Iokanaan, Iokanaan, thou wert the man that I loved alone among men! All other men were hateful to me. But thou wert beautiful! Thy body was a column of ivory set upon feet of silver. It was a garden full of doves and lilies of silver. It was a tower of silver decked with shields of ivory. There was nothing in the world so white as thy body. There was nothing in the world so black as thy hair. In the whole world there was nothing so red as thy mouth. Thy voice was a censer that scattered strange perfumes, and when I looked on thee I heard strange music. Ah! wherefore didst thou not look at me, Iokanaan? With the cloak of thine hands, and with the cloak of thy blasphemies thou didst hide thy face. Thou didst put upon thine eyes the covering of him who would see God. Well, thou hast seen thy God, Iokanaan, but me, me, thou didst never see me. If thou hadst seen me thou hadst loved me. I saw thee, and I loved thee. Oh, how I loved thee! I love thee yet, Iokanaan. I love only thee. I am athirst for thy beauty; I am hungry for thy body; and neither wine nor apples can appease my desire. What shall I do now, Iokanaan? Neither the floods nor the great waters can quench my passion. I was a princess, and thou didst scorn me. I was a virgin, and thou didst take my virginity from me. I was chaste, and thou didst fill my veins with fire. Ah! ah! wherefore didst thou not look at me? [She kisses the head.] Ah! I have kissed thy mouth, Iokanaan, I have kissed thy mouth. There was a bitter taste on thy lips. Was it the taste of blood? Nay; but perchance it was the taste of love. They say that love hath a bitter taste. But what matter? what matter? I have kissed thy mouth.



That sound, the original Vedic mantra OM, when expressed through Brahma's mouth becomes

the sacred Gayatri--mother of the Vedas. ...


The Vedas are perhaps the oldest written text on our planet today. They date back to the beginning of Indian civilization and are the earliest literary records of the whole Aryan race. They are supposed to have been passed through oral tradition for over 100,000 years. They came to us in written form between 4-6,000 years ago.

The Vedas are divided into four groups, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. Each group has an original text (Mantra) and a commentary portion (Brahmana).

The Brahmana again has two portions, one interpreting ritual and the other the philosophy. The portions interpreting the philosophy of the original texts constitute the Upanishads.

There are also auxiliary texts called Vedangas. Vedic literature refers to the whole of this vast group of literature. The whole of Rgveda and most of Atharvaveda are in the form of poetry, or hymns to the deities and the elements.

Samaveda is in verses that are to be sung and Yajurveda is largely in short prose passages. Both Samaveda and Yajurveda are concerned with rituals rather than philosophy - especially Yajurveda.


The Rig-Veda Samhita is the oldest significant extant Indian text. It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities. The books were composed by sages and poets from different priestly groups over a period of at least 500 years, which Avari dates as 1400 BCE to 900 BCE, if not earlier According to Max Müller, based on internal evidence (philological and linguistic), the Rigveda was composed roughly between 1700­1100 BCE (the early Vedic period) in the Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) region of the Indian subcontinent. Michael Witzel believes that the Rig Veda must have been composed more or less in the period 1450-1350 BCE. There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the Rigveda and the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the Andronovo culture; the earliest horse-drawn chariots were found at Andronovo sites in the Sintashta-Petrovka cultural area near the Ural mountains and date to ca. 2000 BCE.

Rigveda means the Veda of Adoration and mostly contains verses adoring or adulating deities. But it also dealt with other subjects, like the procedure of wedding, the folly of gambling. About two-thirds of Rigveda is about the gods Agni (Fire) and Indra (Ruler of the gods). Other Rigvedic gods include Rudra, the two Ashvins,Savitar and Surya, Varuna, the Maruts and the Ribhus. There are references to a divine creeper, the Soma, whose juice was an energizer. Some animals like horses, some rivers, and even some implements (like mortar and pestle) were deified. Rigveda contains a sense of intimate communion between Nature and the Rishis or visionaries. According to some, the concerns of Rigveda are those of simple, nomadic, pastoral Aryans. According to others, the people in the times of the Rigveda had a settled home, definite mode of life, developed social customs, political organizations, and even arts and amusements. Rigveda is the oldest, largest and most important of the Vedas, containing ten thousand verses forming 1017 poems in 20 groups.


The Yajur-Veda ("Veda of sacrificial formulas") consists of archaic prose mantras and also in part of verses borrowed from the Rig-Veda. Its purpose was practical, in that each mantra must accompany an action in sacrifice but, unlike the Sama-Veda, it was compiled to apply to all sacrificial rites, not merely the Soma offering. There are two major recensions of this Veda known as the "Black" and "White" Yajur-Veda. The origin and meaning of these designations are not very clear. The White Yajur-Veda contains only the verses and sayings necessary for the sacrifice, while explanations exist in a separate Brahmana work. It differs widely from the Black Yajurveda, which incorporates such explanations in the work itself, often immediately following the verses. Of the Black Yajurveda four major recensions survive, all showing by and large the same arrangement, but differing in many other respects, notably in the individual discussion of the rituals but also in matters of phonology and accent.

Yajurveda refers to acts of worship such as oblations made into Agni or Fire. It has two branches, Krishna or Black and Shukla or White. While both contain mantras or incantations to be chanted at rituals, Black Yajurveda also has many explanations. The recensions of Black Yajurveda are Taittirya, Katthaka, Maitrayani and Kapishtthala. Those of White Yajurveda are Madhyanadina and Kanva. The literary value of Yajurveda is mostly for its prose, which consists of short terse sentences full of meaning and cadence.


The Sama-Veda is the "Veda of chants" or "Knowledge of melodies". The name of this Veda is from the Sanskrit word saman which means a metrical hymn or song of praise. It consists of 1549 stanzas, taken entirely (except 78) from the Rig-Veda. Some of the Rig-Veda verses are repeated more than once. Including repetitions, there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Sama-Veda recension published by Griffith. Two major recensions remain today, the Kauthuma/Ranayaniya and the Jaiminiya. P> Its purpose was liturgical and practical, to serve as a songbook for the "singer" priests who took part in the liturgy. A priest who sings hymns from the Sama-Veda during a ritual is called an udgat, a word derived from the Sanskrit root ud-gai ("to sing" or "to chant"). A similar word in English might be "cantor". The styles of chanting are important to the liturgical use of the verses. The hymns were to be sung according to certain fixed melodies; hence the name of the collection.

Samaveda consists of a selection of poetry mainly from the Rigveda, and some original matter. It has two parts, Purva-Archika (First Adoratona) and Uttar-Archika (Later Adoration), containing verses addressed to the three gods Agni (Fire), Indra (King of Gods) and Soma (Energizing Herb). The verses are not to be chanted anyhow, but to be sung in specifically indicated melodies using the seven svaras or notes. Such songs are called Samagana and in this sense Samaveda is really a book of hymns.


Atharvaveda means the Veda of the Wise and the Old. It is associated with the name of the ancient poet Atharvan (The Wise Old One). It is also called Atharva-Angirasa, being associated with the name of another rishi, Angiras. Although later in age, the Atharvaveda reveals a more primitive culture than the Rigveda. The custom is to enumerate Yajurveda and Samaveda after the Rigveda, and mention Atharvaveda last. Atharvaveda contains about 6 thousand verses forming 731 poems and a small portion in prose. About one seventh of the Atharvaveda text is common to the Rigveda.

Atharvaveda contains first class poetry coming from visionary poets, much of it being glorification of the curative powers of herbs and waters. Many poems relate to diseases like cough and jaundice, to male and female demons that cause diseases, to sweet-smelling herbs and magic amulets, which drive diseases away. There are poems relating to sins and their atonement, errors in performing rituals and their expiatory acts, political and philosophical issues, and a wonderful hymn to Prithvi or Mother Earth.

Vedas Wikipedia

The Vedas describe Vimanas or space ships



The Upanishads are regarded as part of the Vedas and as such form part of the Hindu scriptures. They primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. Considered as mystic or spiritual contemplations of the Vedas, their putative end and essence, the Upanishads are known as Vedanta ("the end/culmination of the Vedas"). The Upanishads do not belong to a particular period of Sanskrit literature. The oldest, such as the Brhadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads, may date to the Brahmana period (roughly before the 31st century BC; before Gita was constructed), while the youngest, depending on the canon used, may date to the medieval or early modern period. The word Upanishad comes from the Sanskrit verb sad (to sit) and the two prepositions upa and ni (under and at). They are sacred tests of spiritual and philosophical nature. Vedic literature is divided into karmakanda containing Samhitas (hymns) and Brahmanas (commentaries), and gyanakanda containing knowledge in the form of the Aranyakas and Upanishads. Thus each Upanishad is associated with a Veda, Isha-upanishad with Shukla Yajurveda, Kena-upanishad with Samaveda, and so on.


The earliest Upanishads may have been composed between B.C. 800 and 400.There have been several later additions, leading to 112 Upanishads being available today. But the major Upanishads are ten, Isha, Kena, Kattha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Shwetashwatara, Chhandogya and Brihadaryanyaka. The teachings of the Upanishads, and those of the Bhagavat Gita, form the basis of the Vedanta philosophy.


The Isha-upanishad emphasizes the identity of the human soul with the divine soul. The Kena-upanishad discusses the qualities of the divine essence (Brahman) and the relationship of the gods to the divine essence. The Katha-upanishad, through the story of Nachiketa, discussed death and the permanence of the soul (Atman). The fairly long Chhandogya-upanishad develops the idea of transmigration of souls. The rihadaryanaka -upanishad, the longest of the Upanishads, bears the message of the completeness of the divine essence, and the associated peace. As literary remnants of the ancient past, the Upanishads ­ both lucid and elegant - have great literary value.





elemental facets to the adoration of our Lord: Praise, Meditation and ...

The Rig Veda (10:16:3)










The Library of Babel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The story repeats the theme of Borges's 1939 essay "The Total Library" ("La biblioteca ... Lasswitz in his 1901 story "The Universal Library" ("Die Universalbibliotek"): .... Borges, Jorge Luis. The Total Library: Non-Fiction 1922-1986. ... - Cached - Similar


The Library of Babel
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"The Library of Babel"
Author Jorge Luis Borges
Original title "La biblioteca de Babel"
Translator James E. Irby
Anthony Kerrigan
Country Argentina
Language Spanish
Genre(s) Fantasy, short story
Published in El Jardín de senderos que se bifurcan
Publisher Editorial Sur
Media type Print
Publication date 1941
Published in English 1962

"The Library of Babel" (Spanish: La biblioteca de Babel) is a short story by Argentine author and librarian Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), conceiving of a universe in the form of a vast library containing all possible 410-page books of a certain format.

The story originally appeared in Spanish in Borges's 1941 collection of stories El Jardín de senderos que se bifurcan (The Garden of Forking Paths). That entire book was, in turn, included within his much-reprinted Ficciones (1944). Two English-language translations appeared approximately simultaneously in 1962, one by James E. Irby in a diverse collection of Borges's works entitled Labyrinths and the other by Anthony Kerrigan as part of a collaborative translation of the entirety of Ficciones.

Contents [hide]
1 Plot summary
2 Themes
3 Influence on later writers
4 Value as a thought experiment
4.1 Quine's Reductio
5 References
6 External links

[edit] Plot summary
Borges's narrator describes how his universe consists of an endless expanse of interlocking hexagonal rooms, each of which contains the bare necessities for human survival—and four walls of bookshelves. Though the order and content of the books is random and apparently completely meaningless, the inhabitants believe that the books contain every possible ordering of just a few basic characters (letters, spaces and punctuation marks). Though the majority of the books in this universe are pure gibberish, the library also must contain, somewhere, every coherent book ever written, or that might ever be written, and every possible permutation or slightly erroneous version of every one of those books. The narrator notes that the library must contain all useful information, including predictions of the future, biographies of any person, and translations of every book in all languages. Conversely, for many of the texts some language could be devised that would make it readable with any of a vast number of different contents.

Despite — indeed, because of — this glut of information, all books are totally useless to the reader, leaving the librarians in a state of suicidal despair. This leads some librarians to superstitions and cult-like behaviour, such as the "Purifiers", who arbitrarily destroy books they deem nonsense as they move through the library seeking the "Crimson Hexagon" and its illustrated, magical books. Another is the belief that since all books exist in the library, somewhere one of the books must be a perfect catalog of the library's contents; some even believe that a messianic figure known as the "Man of the Book" has read it, and they travel through the library seeking him.

[edit] Themes
The story repeats the theme of Borges's 1939 essay "The Total Library" ("La biblioteca total"), which in turn acknowledges the earlier development of this theme by Kurd Lasswitz in his 1901 story "The Universal Library" ("Die Universalbibliotek"):

Certain examples that Aristotle attributes to Democritus and Leucippus clearly prefigure it, but its belated inventor is Gustav Theodor Fechner, and its first exponent, Kurd Lasswitz. [...] In his book The Race with the Tortoise (Berlin, 1919), Dr Theodor Wolff suggests that it is a derivation from, or a parody of, Ramón Llull's thinking machine [...T]he elements of his game are the universal orthographic symbols, not the words of a language [...] Lasswitz arrives at twenty-five symbols (twenty-two letters, the space, the period, the comma), whose recombinations and repetitions encompass everything possible to express in all languages. The totality of such variations would form a Total Library of astronomical size. Lasswitz urges mankind to construct that inhuman library, which chance would organize and which would eliminate intelligence. (Wolff's The Race with the Tortoise expounds the execution and the dimensions of that impossible enterprise.)[1]
Many of Borges's signature themes are featured in the story, including infinity, reality, cabalistic reasoning, and labyrinths. The concept of the library is often compared to Borel's dactylographic monkey theorem. There is no reference to monkeys or typewriters in the The Library of Babel story; Borges had mentioned that analogy in his earlier 1939 essay The Total Library: "[a] half-dozen monkeys provided with typewriters would, in a few eternities, produce all the books in the British Museum". In this story, the closest equivalent is the line: "A blasphemous sect suggested [...] that all men should juggle letters and symbols until they constructed, by an improbable gift of chance, these canonical books".

Borges would examine a similar idea with his later story, "The Book of Sand"; in the later story, there is an infinite book (or book with an indefinite number of pages) rather than an infinite library. In addition, the Book of Sand is written in an unknown alphabet and its content is not obviously random.

The concept of the library is also overtly analogous to the view of the universe as a sphere having its center everywhere and its circumference nowhere. The mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal employed this metaphor, and in an earlier essay Borges noted that Pascal's manuscript called the sphere effroyable, or "frightful".

In any case, it is clear that a library containing all possible books, arranged at random, is equivalent (as a source of information) to a library containing zero books.

The quote at the beginning of the story, "By this art you may contemplate the variation of the twenty-three letters," is from Robert Burton's 1621 The Anatomy of Melancholy.

[edit] Influence on later writers
In "The Net of Babel", published in Interzone in 1995, David Langford imagines the Library becoming computerized for easy access. This aids the librarians in searching for specific text while also highlighting the futility of such searches as they can find anything, but nothing of meaning as such. The sequel continues many of Borges's themes, while also highlighting the difference between data and information, and satirizing the Internet.
Daniel Dennett's 1995 book Darwin's Dangerous Idea includes an elaboration of the Library of Babel concept to illustrate the mathematics of genetic variation. It is called the Library of Mendel.
Russell Standish's Theory of Nothing uses the concept of the Library of Babel to illustrate how an ultimate ensemble containing all possible descriptions would in sum contain zero information and would thus be the simplest possible explanation for the existence of the universe. This theory therefore implies the reality of all universes.
Umberto Eco's postmodern novel The Name of the Rose features a labyrinthine library, presided over by a monk named Jorge of Burgos.
Terry Pratchett uses the concept of the infinite library in his Discworld novels. The knowledgeable librarian is a human wizard transformed into an orangutan.
[edit] Value as a thought experiment
The Library contains at least books.[2] Just one "authentic" volume, together with all those variants containing only a handful of misprints, would occupy so much space that they would fill the known universe.

Authentic volume: 1
Variants with one misprint: = 31,488,000
Variants with exactly two misprints: = 495,746,694,144,000
Variants with exactly three misprints: = 5,203,349,369,788,317,696,000
Variants with exactly four misprints: = 40,960,672,578,684,980,713,193,472,000
Very large libraries typically contain several million volumes.

In his book Out of Control, Kevin Kelly devotes a chapter to the concept presented by Borges. Among other things, he proposes that the librarians may have been horribly mistaken about the nature of some of the books of nonsense. Some of these are assuredly copies of other books, some written in a substitution cipher, others phonetically, some in made-up languages, etc. Kelly points out the proposal that every book in the library is legible, if one decodes it right. This lends itself to the philosophical idea proposed by Immanuel Kant, that by defining rules for the universe, we create rules of the universe. Because the librarians assumed that the books of nonsense were exactly that, they may have tossed away several copies of Directions to the crimson hexagon from where you are now standing, simply because it was written in a cipher. Additionally, because there are by definition all books, there are certainly also books of lies and falsehoods. For each copy of the codex to the library, there will be many copies of false codices, claiming some false books to be true and some true books to be false. In short, any room in the library could be the crimson hexagon.

Kelly also takes a mental journey through the library, realizing that a book entitled "Out of Control, by Kevin Kelly" lies hidden somewhere in the library. This copy of this book is better than the one he is currently writing. His narrative takes a turn here, as he realizes that he would spend more time looking for such a book than he would actually writing such a book himself. He returns to the philosophical examination of the library by noting that hidden in the gibberish of the library, there are works beyond human capacity to write, simply by definition that it contains all possible books, of which these are a possibility. The library cannot be damaged by the destruction of any of its books because even though a single book is unique, there are also similar books differing by a single letter. The library is a temptation, because it offers these gems of enlightenment, and buries them in deception. He concludes by saying that one can consider any text, including his, as being pulled from the library by the act of the author defining the search letter by letter until they reach a text close enough to the one they intended to write. The text already existed theoretically, but had to be found by the act of the author's imagination.

[edit] Quine's Reductio
In one short essay, W.V.O. Quine noted the interesting fact that the Library of Babel is finite (i.e., we will theoretically come to a point in history where everything has been written), and that the Library of Babel can be constructed in its entirety simply by writing a dot on one piece of paper and a dash on another. These two sheets of paper could then be alternated at random by the bearer, who would be able to read the resulting text in Morse code as he flipped them back and forth. This shows that the Library of Babel is actually quite manageable, and that everyone with paper and a pencil can create it in a couple of seconds.[3]

[edit] References
1.^ Borges, Jorge Luis. The Total Library: Non-Fiction 1922-1986. Allen Lane The Penguin Press, London, 2000. Pages 214-216. Translated by Eliot Weinberger.
2.^ From the third paragraph of the story: "Each book contains 410 pages; each page, 40 lines; each line, about 80 black letters." That makes 410 x 40 x 80 = 1,312,000 characters. The fifth paragraph tells us that "there are 25 orthographic symbols" including spaces and punctuation. The magnitude of the resulting number is found by taking logarithms. However, this calculation only gives a lower bound on the number of books as it does not take into account variations in the titles - the narrator does not specify a limit on the number of characters on the spine. For further discussion of this, see Bloch, William Goldbloom. The Unimaginable Mathematics of Borges' Library of Babel. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2008.
3.^ "Universal Library" by W.V.O Quine
[edit] External links
The James Irby translation of the "Library of Babel". digital access to the Library of Babel – a Library of Babel simulation
Reduced Library of Babel – a Library of Babel simulation reduced to English and French
How Big is the Library of Babel?
Related Links and Commentary

Metafiction: Marginalia in the Library of Babel
Other such simulations also exist




Robert Burns (25 January 1759 – 21 July 1796) (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire and in ...




The Zahir - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Zahir (original Spanish title: "El Zahir") is a short story by the Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. It is one of the stories in the book The ... - Cached - Similar -


For other uses, see Zahir.
"The Zahir"
Author Jorge Luis Borges
Original title "El Zahir"
Country Argentina
Language Spanish
Genre(s) Fantasy, short story
Media type Print
Publication date 1949

The Zahir (original Spanish title: "El Zahir") is a short story by the Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. It is one of the stories in the book The Aleph and Other Stories, first published in 1949, and revised by the author in 1974.

[edit] Plot summary
In the story, Zahir is a person or an object that has the power to create an obsession in everyone who sees it, so that the affected person perceives less and less of reality and more and more of the Zahir, at first only while asleep, then at all times.

Borges plays himself in the story as a man who, after paying for a drink, gets the Zahir in his change. At the very beginning of the story Borges describes it: a common twenty-centavo coin, with the year of minting of 1929 and knife marks scratching the letters N T and the figure 2.

Borges then tells the reader about a train of thought focused on famous coins throughout history and legend, and the fact that a coin symbolizes our free will, since it can be turned into anything. These feverish thoughts keep him awake for a while. The next day Borges decides to lose the coin. He goes to a faraway neighborhood in Buenos Aires, while he carefully avoids looking at the street names and numbers, and manages to get rid of the Zahir by paying for another drink in an anonymous bar.

The writer is unable to forget the coin, which fills his dreams and (we are allowed to guess) his waking moments too. In the meantime, he tries to look for a cure to his obsession, and after some research he finds a book that explains his malady. In this book, the Borges character reads that the Zahir (or sometimes Zaheer) is a piece of Islamic folklore that dates back to the 17th century. A Zahir is an object that traps everyone who so much as takes a look at it, even from afar, into an obsession that finally erases the rest of reality. In other times and places, a tiger has been a Zahir, as well as an astrolabe, the bottom of a well, and a vein in a marble column in a mosque. According to the myth, everything on earth has the propensity to be a Zahir, but "the Almighty does not allow more than one thing at a time to be it, since one alone can seduce multitudes".

Borges tells us that soon he will be unable to perceive external reality, and he will have to be dressed and fed; but then he reflects that this fate does not worry him, since he'll be oblivious to it. In idealistic philosophy, "to live and to dream are synonymous", and he will simply pass "from a very complex dream to a very simple dream". In a mixture of despair and resignation, he wonders:

Others will dream that I am mad, and I [will dream] of the Zahir. When all men on earth think day and night of the Zahir, which one will be a dream and which a reality, the earth or the Zahir?

In Arabic, zahir ( ظاهر ) is an active participle with meanings denoting apparent, visible, obvious, manifest, surface, exoteric, exterior, literal, superficial, etc. Al-Zahir is a name of God, the Manifest, paired with al-Batin, the Concealed.

[edit] Other works of the same title
The title of The Zahir (2005) by Brazilian writer Paulo Coelho refers to the Borges story. It tells the story of a man who becomes obsessed with his wife, who has disappeared.
[edit] Notes
The Zahir is in many ways the opposite of The Aleph, the subject of another Borges short story also published in the same short story collection. Whereas viewing the Aleph causes the observer to see all things, viewing the Zahir causes the observer eventually to see only the Zahir.
This is one of many Borges stories that manifests the author's obsession with tigers. (The story mentions a man afflicted by the Zahir who sees only tigers).
One interpretation of the story is as a parable about unrequited love. The story is dedicated to Wally Zenner, one of the many women Borges courted unsuccessfully.
Borges touches upon the concept of the Zahir in his short story Deutsches Requiem, also published in 1949. In it he wrote, "I had come to understand many years before that there is nothing on earth that does not contain the seed of a possible Hell; a face, a word, a compass, a cigarette advertisement, are capable of driving a person mad if he is unable to forget them."
Retrieved from ""
Categories: 1949 short stories | Short stories by Jorge Luis Borges




Maurice M Cotterell


"Once we understood the intellectual game of the Maya, in the Temple of Inscriptions, we were invited to count. We counted firstly 11111,22222, 33333,44444,55555, 66... the number of the beast, of blasphemy, is miss-ing from the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque. But then we began to count the beads on the necklace from the neck of Lord Pacal (see Chap-ter 4). Only when we began the count did the numbers 666 appear, not as themselves but as part of the number 13, which occurred in three sections of the necklace. Then the numbers 777 and 888 appeared in the necklace and then the 9s were found elsewhere: 'Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast.'
The expression 'Let he that hath an ear, let him.hear' appears no less than eight times in Revelations, and we recall that one of the plaster heads of Lord Pacal found on the floor of the tomb had one ear missing:
'Let he that hath an ear, let him hear' (see Fig 37).
Revelations continues by telling of an angel that came to 'seal the servants of God'




E. A. Wallace Budge





And I say, 'On every road " and among (11) these millions of years is Ra the lord, "and his path is in the fire; and they go round about "behind him, and they go round about behind him.' "


"and his path is in the fire; and they go round about "behind him, and they go round about behind him.' "



In 1913 Bohr perfected the Rutherford theory of the atom by an early use of quantum theory. An electron moving in a circle around the nucleus can be held in orbit by a balance between the electrostatic force of attraction to the nuclei and the centrifugal force due to its motion.




Lois Pauwels and Jacques Bergier


Page 226

The 'Sun' was the fixed centre round which the electrons revolve"




Maurice M Cotterell



And I saw another angel ascending from the East, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the Earth and the sea, saying 'Hurt not the Earth, nei-ther the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads: And I saw the number of them which were sealed; and there were sealed an hundred and forty, and four thousand of all the tribes of the childrel} of Israel. (Rev VII 3,4)
It goes on, 'And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the Earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree, but only those men which have not the seal of God on their foreheads...' (Rev IX, 4).
Look again at The Physical Death of Lord Pacal, Scene 4 (Fig 49 below). Look again at his forehead, and count the number sealed: 144,000.
Like all composites, the picture is made up of two halves which are 'reflected' either side of the centre line of the drawing. It is therefore not possible to show the number 144,000 from left to right and again (the mirror image) from right to left. To overcome this, 1440 is written from left to right. The mirror image of 1440 can be seen from right to left. The missing two zeros (in Mayan notation, an oval embellished with three lines) are shown above this number.
It seems that the man in the tomb at Palenque had much in common with the other Supergods - Jesus, Krishna and Buddha - and that he brought the same message and the same super-knowledge which has powerfully influenced the intellectual ascent of man since time began."




Maurice M Cotterell


Page 118

"Sacrifice at first appears as penance, difficult and tortuous, attracting few followers. In the Hindu holy book, the Bhagava-Geeta, the teacher Lord Krishna supports this view saying:

Hear further the three kinds of pleasure. That which increases day after day and delivers one from misery, which at first seems like poison, but afterwards acts like nectar - that pleasure is pure, for it is born of wis-dom. That which is at first like nectar, because the senses revel in their objects, but in the end acts like poison - that pleasure arises from pas-sion. While the pleasure which from first to last merely drugs the senses, which springs from indolence, lethargy and folly - that pleasure flows from ignorance. (BG, 18:36-9)

(BG, 18:36-9)


Page number omitted




 Geocentric Longitude of the Planet Herschel for 100 years during the 18th Century. The Moon's Node on the first day of
         every month, from 1836 to 1880. Heliocentric
and Geocentric Longitude of all the
        Eclipses of the Sun visible in England.
Milton Press J. Nichols, 9, Chandos Street. Strand.


"A work of this kind may not be so amusing to some individuals as a pleasing romance; yet it is hoped will prove to the Astronomical Stu-dent and learner, gratifying and instructive. At  the request of a select number of students, the present laborious calculations were made, in order to give others and themselves an opportu-nity of more perfectly understanding the appa-rent motions of the superior Planetary bodies herein mentioned, together with an illustration of the various phenomena the above planets present to us, the observers on this Earth, caused by the revolution of the planets and the earth, around the Sun, as the centre and great point of attraction tion to the Solar System. I have given a correct Table of the longitude and latitude of 144 fixed stars, calculated up to 1836,..."

Page 9 (number omitted)


"THIS Introduction is merely intended to con-vey a sufficient idea to those who are not already acquainted with the solar system, the propor-tional distances of the Planets' orbits from the Sun, and the Earth, together with the apparent motions of the superior planets, as viewed from this Earth, called their geocentric places or motions. The path of the Planets or circles which their orbits describe in the heavens, is called the Zodiac. Suppose it a belt 20° wide with the Ecliptic, orbit, or path of the Earth in the centre thereof; in as much as a planet's orbit differs from the exact plane of the Ecliptic, or orbit ,of the Earth, so much is the planet's latitude in degrees and minutes; the points where these imaginary circles intersect the Ecliptic, are cal!ed the nodes: The ascend-ing node is that point which the planet enters / Page 10 / for north latitude, the opposite is the descending node for south latitude. The Zodiac is divided into 12 Constellations, called signs, each sign divided into 30 degrees, each degree into minutes and seconds."



Maurice Cotterell 1999

Page 193

" The centre of Solomon's courtyard contained a perfect cube, the 'holy of holies', the solid gold 'Oracle' encrusted in jewels. The inner / Page 194 / temple was a marvel of courtyards and balconies, adorned with 1,453 magnificently sculpted Parisian-marble columns, 2,906 decorated pilasters and statues of stone and metal. The buildings and courtyards could hold an estimated gathering of 300,000.

Anderson's Constitutions of the Freemasons (1723) comments:

. . . the finest structures of Tyre and Sidon could not be compared with the Eternal God's Temple at Jerusalem. . . there were employed 3,600 Princes, or 'Master Masons', to conduct the work according to Solomon's directions, with 80,000 hewers of stone in the mountains ('Fellow Craftsmen'), and 70,000 labourers, in all 153,600, besides the levy under Adoniram to work in the mountains of Lebanon by turns with the Sidonians, viz 30,000 being in all 183,600..."

"...According to the Biblical account, Chiram returned home following completion of the temple, although according to A. E. Waite (New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry);

The legend of the Master Builder is the greatest allegory of Masonry. It happens that this figurative story is grounded on the fact of a personality mentioned in Holy Scripture, but this historical background is of the accident and not of the essence; the significance is in the allegory and not in any point of history which may lie behind it."


Martin Rees 1999

A proton is 1,836 times heavier than an electron, and the number 1,836 would have the same connotations to any 'intelligence' "


Bruce Cathie 1977

"(144 is the harmonic of the speed of light) and 6942 is the harmonic reciprocal."


"The value that I calculated for length was extremely close to that.of the one published in Davidson and Aldersmith's book, their value being 1836 inches, and my theoretical value 1833,46 geodetic inches."

"A search of my physics books revealed that 1836 was the closest approximation the scientists have calculated to the mass / Page 96 (Diagram 15 omitted) Page 97 / ratio of the positive hydrogen ion, i.e. the proton, to the electron..."

153 x 12 = 1836

1 x 8 x 3 x 6 = 144


Bruce Cathie 1977

"(144 is the harmonic of the speed of light) and 6942 is the harmonic reciprocal."

11 SAGITTARIUS 144 45 9

11 TUTANKHAMUN 144 36 9

11 SERENDIPITY 144 63 9




Bruce Cathie 1977


"The value that I calculated for length was extremely close to that.of the one published in Davidson and Aldersmith's book, their value being 1836 inches, and my theoretical value 1833,46 geodetic inches.
A considerable amount of time was required to calculate a satisfactory value for the length of the Gallery. I eventually found that the amount of hollowing-in at the base provided the ,clue. If 57.6 (the amount in inches by which the base is inset) is divided by pi or 3.1415927, the resulting value is 18.334649. The harmonic equivalent of 1833.46 when applied to Gallery length would ensure that the wave-forms set up in the cavity were finely tuned to light frequencies.

A search of my physics books revealed that 1836 was the closest approximation the scientists have calculated to the mass / Page 96 (Diagram 15 omitted) Page 97 / ratio of the positive hydrogen ion, i.e. the proton, to the electron..."




Bruce Cathie 1977


Page 54

"NATURAL LAW IS NOT ERRATIC. The universe does not rely on chance to manifest within itself the physical substance which we perceive, and call reality. A very strict and ordered system of mathematical progressions is necessary to create the smallest speck of matter from the primeval matrix of space.
During my years of research into the complexities of the earth grid system I have gradually built up a picture in my mind of the possible geometric combinations necessary to form matter from resonating, interlocking wave-forms. My limited abilities in the various academic fields have made this task a taxing one at times, but I think I have discovered how to apply the original values, published in my first two books, in a practical mathematical sense, to build up a model which 'demonstrates the harmonic formation of matter.
This model indicates to me that the number of individual elements to be found in the universe will be 144. Each of these elements will have, in theory, six isotopes, which will make up a completed table of separate substances numbering 1008. An isotope is an atom of the same element which has a different nuclear mass and atomic weight.
Mathematically, the progression would create 144 octaves of separate substances giving a theoretical value of 1152. The differen~ between the total number of substances (1008) and the harmonic value in octaves (1152) would be 144, the light harmonic. The table of elements, in octaves, would create a cycle which would be in perfect resonance with the harmonic circumference of every atom from which it is constituted. It will be demonstrated that the harmonic circumference of every atom is 1152 units.
 The harmonic values which create the geometric structure of matter can all be derived from the basic harmonic of the speed of light, 144. I have shown in Chapter Four how all the spherical / Page 54 / bodies in the universe are precipitated from space by resonances tuned to the reciprocal harmonic of light (6944). This applies to an atom and to the largest of planetary bodies, as the geometric harmonic diameter of any sized sphere has a constant harmonic affinity with the light reciprocal.
Once the precipitation of physical matter has occurred, the buildup of the substances we know as the elements takes place, according to a very well-ordered mathematical sequence. Light- waves, guided seemingly by superior intelligence, form intricate interlocking grid patterns which graduate from the simple to the more complex, as the elements from hydrogen, at the l°v:'er end of the scale, to element 144, come into being.
When we think of reality we must think of mass in relation to any physical manifestation, and the smallest particle of physical matter that we are aware of is the electron. Therefore, electron mass must be the starting point in our quest for a feasible theory to explain the structure of matter. The physics books give the best experimental value for rest mass of 9.11 x 10-31 kg for the electron, (9.2 x 10-31 in some physics books) and all modern- day calculations for mass and energy have a relationship relative
to this figure. To form the basis for a harmonic series we must , find a mass number for the electron which can be derived directly! from the harmonic of light, 144.
The mathematical analysis I carried out on the Great Pyramid, gave me the first clues upon which to base a unit for electron
mass that would show connecting relationships throughout the atomic scale. The theoretical figure proved to be 9.24184 units.
This was a fairly close approximation to the harmonic equiva-lent of 9.11 found by scientific experiment. A difference of 1.426 per cent.'
To form an atomic structure, the electron mass unit must have some sort of constant mass ratio in relation to the protons which form the nucleus of an atom. Most textbooks give an experi- mental value for this ratio of 1836 units. I found again from my work on the Pyramid that the most likely true value was 1833.464944 units. This turned out to be the theoretical length of the Grand Gallery in geodetic inches, and indicated to me that the Gallery was in fact constructed as a wave guide, tuned to light harmonics." 

Page 95

"The value that I calculated for length was extremely close to that of the one published in Davidson and Aldersmith's book their value being 1836 inches, and my theoretical value 1833.46 geodetic inches..."

"...A search of my physics books revealed that 1836 was the closest approximation the scientists have calculated to the mass / Page 96 (Diagram 15 omitted)Page 97 /ratio of the positive hydrogen ion, i.e. the proton to the electron."

Page 86

"A further interesting comment was found in the preface to the third edition of Davidson and Aldersmith's book on the Great Pyramid. The religious symbolism of the displacement factor (the "hollowing-in" of the sides of the pyramid during construc- tion) was discussed as follows: "This aspect of the structural allegory throws a flood of light upon an element of the scriptural allegory that clearly refers to the completion of 'all the building'
. . . 'unto the measure of the fullness of the stature', required by the design. This concerns the symbolic '144000 . . . redeemed
from among men. . . without fault before the throne of God'
(Rev XIV, 1':'5); 'Living stones' . . . without flaw for the perfect casing."
It is the symbolic 144000 that appears to have great signifi-cance in the ancient writings and it is interesting to note that this particular value has been connected in some way by other researchers to the enigma of the Great Pyramid. Considering that the angular velocity of light value in grid seconds is also 144000, as postulated in other sections of this book, it is obvious to me that the structure is in fact a measure of light, and by applying this value it should be possible to solve the mathemati-cal puzzle which has been handed down to us."




Bruce Cathie


Page 80


" THE OBELISK RISING majestically from the sandswept plain has been visible to man for many centuries. Its massive bulk and geometric simplicity of shape have caused wonder and endless speculation to countless generations of wise men throughout history. The meaning, or reason, for such a structure has been lost and those responsible for the building of an edifice such as this must have been in possession of extremely advanced scientific knowledge. Were they an advanced race of this world who destroyed themselves by unwise manipulation of their own scientific achievement? Or, so-called gods? Or, people from other worlds who left amongst us an almost indestructible repository of advanced knowledge in the mathematical com-plexities of the universe?
The obelisk I speak of is not the cold, black, forbidding obelisk depicted in Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001, but a pyramid of shining splendour built on a rocky mile-square plateau ten miles west of Cairo, The plateau is known as Giza; the pyramidal structure of an estimated two-and-a-half million blocks of granite and limestone, is the


"Great Pyramid of Cheops",     Page 95 "The value that I calculated for length was extremely close to that of the one published in Davidson and Aldersmith's book, their value being 1836 inches, and my theoretical value 1833.46 geodetic inches.
A considerable amount of time was required to calculate a satisfactory value for the length of the Gallery. I eventually found that the amount of hollowing-in at the base provided the clue. If 57.6 (the amount in inches by which the base is inset) is I divided by pi or 3.1415927, the resulting value is 18.334649. The harmonic equivalent of 1833.46 when applied to Gallery length would ensure that the wave - forms set up in the cavity were finely tuned to light frequencies.
A search of my physics books revealed that 1836 was the closest approximation the scientists have calculated to the mass / Page 96 (Diagram omitted)) / Page 97 / ratio of the positive hydrogen ion, i.e. the proton, to the electron. tf we dare to assume that the value, of 1833.46 is the true geometric ratio then the wave-forms in the Gallery will also have a harmonic affinity with the structure of the atom, the building block of the universe itself. Pressing on with this train of thought I again consulted a book on atomic physics and found that the mass of the electron is given as 9.2 x 10-31 kilo- grammes. I believe that, according to the clues presented by the Pyramid, the true value of electron mass, in the harmonic sense, could be taken as a standard of 9.24184 x 10-31 kilo- grammes." 




John Gribbin and Stephen Plagemann 1977

Page 122

"Seventeen 'major historical earthquakes' are referred to in the report all of which occurred since 1836"




Bruce Cathie




Page 95

"The search for this particular value was a lengthy one and the clue that led me finally to a possible solution was a study of the construction of the Grand Gallery. The height of the Gallery was the first indication that it was not just an elaborate access passage. Previous measurements made by scientific investigators pointed to some interesting possibilities."

Page 95

"The value that I calculated for length was extremely close to that of the one published in Davidson and Aldersmith's book, their value being 1836 inches,"

Page 95/97

"A search of my physics books revealed that 1836 was the closest approximation the scientists have calculated to the mass / ratio of the positive hydrogen ion, i.e. the proton, to the electron."




Martin Rees



Page 24

"A proton is 1,836 times heavier than an electron, and the number 1,836 would have the same connotations to any 'intelligence' "

Page 24 / 25

"A manifestly artificial signal- even if it were as boring as lists of prime numbers, or the digits of 'pi' - would imply that 'intelli- gence' wasn't unique to the Earth and had evolved elsewhere. The nearest potential sites are so far away that signals would take many years in transit. For this reason alone, transmission would be primarily one-way. There would be time to send a measured response, but no scope for quick repartee!
Any remote beings who could communicate with us would have some concepts of mathematics and logic that paralleled our own. And they would also share a knowledge of the basic particles and forces that govern our universe. Their habitat may be very different (and the biosphere even more different) from ours here on Earth; but they, and their planet, would be made of atoms just like those on Earth. For them, as for us, the most important particles would be protons and electrons: one electron orbiting a proton makes a hydrogen atom, and electric currents and radio transmitters involve streams of electrons. A proton is 1,836 times heavier than an electron, and the number 1,836 would have the same connotations to any 'intelligence' able and motivated to transmit radio signals. All the basic forces and natural laws would be the same. Indeed, this uniformity - without which our universe would be a far more baffling place - seems to extend to the remotest galaxies that astronomers can study. (Later chapters in this book will, however, speculate about other 'universes', forever beyond range of our telescopes, where different laws may prevail.)
Clearly, alien beings wouldn't use metres, kilograms or seconds. But we could exchange information about the ratios of two masses (such as thc ratio of proton and electron masses) or of two lengths, which are 'pure numbers' that don't depend on what units are used: the statement that one rod is ten times as long as another is true (or false) whether we measure lengths / in feet or metres or some alien units"



Maurice Cotterell

Page 195

"Anderson's Constitutions of the Freemasons (1723) comments:
. . . the finest structures of Tyre and Sidon could not be compared with the Eternal God's Temple at Jerusalem. . . there were employed 3,600 Princes, or 'Master Masons', to conduct the w,ork according to Solomon's directions, with 80,000 hewers of stone in the mountains ('Fellow Craftsmen'), and 70,000 labourers, in all 153,600, besides the levy under Adoniram to work in the mountains of Lebanon by turns with the Sidonians, viz 30,000 being in all 183,600."

"being in all 183,600."


Maurice Cotterell


Page 190

The holy number of sun-worshippers is 9, the highest number that can be reached before becoming one (10) with the creator. This is why Tutankhamun was entombed in nine layers of coffin. This is why the pyramid skirts of the two statues, guarding the entrance to the Burial Chamber, were triangular (base 3), when the all-seeing eye-skirt of Mereruka contained a pyramid skirt with a base of four sides. The message concealed here is that the 3 should be squared, which equals 9"

"The message concealed here is that the 3 should be squared, which equals 9"



Quest for a theory of everything

Kitty Ferguson 1991

Page 103

"The square root of 9 is three. So we know that the third side.' (line ends)

There are 13 words and number 9 in the 33rd line down of page 103

Andrija Puharich

Copyright 1974 By Lab Nine Ltd

Page 132

"This is how we remembered it at the time: Abraham was liv-ing near Hebron at Mamre. He was lying in his tent in the heat of
the day when three men appeared before him. They seemed to be real men. Abraham treated them hospitably with food and drink as though they were real men. Then one of them predicted that Sarah, who was around ninety years old, would have a child. She, of course, laughed this off as blarney. The three men indi-cated that they were on a serious mission for the Lord."




Thomas Mann 1875 - 1955


"You speak of Nature, but you strike her in the face with your demands, you want me to strike her in the face, by stifling the spring of pain with which she has miraculously blest my soul! What a sin that would be, what ingratitude, what disloyalty to her, to Nature, and what a denial of my faith in her beneficent omnipotence! You remember how Sarah sinned? She laughed to herself be-hind the door and said: "After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?" But the Lord God was angry and said: "Wherefore did Sarah laugh?" In my opinion, she laughed less on account of her own withered old age than be-cause her lord, Abraham, was likewise so old and stricken in years, already ninety-nine. And what woman could not but laugh at the thought of indulging in lust with a ninety-nine year-old man, for all that a man's love life is less strictly limited / Page367 than a woman's. But my lord is young, is youth itself, and how much more easily and temptingly must the thought come to me "

"Abraham, was likewise so old and stricken in years, already ninety-nine"

with a ninety-nine year-old man






Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt 1963


"The red oxen had been left behind; now the "Nine Friends" and the two viziers-of the North and South- drew the ropes attached to the bier behind which followed a last high dignitary of the royal procession."

Page158 (Chapter 7) 1343

The death of the king and preparations for immortality 

"Analysis of his mummy shows that Tutankhamen was between eighteen and twenty years old when he died. This allows one to set the approxi-mate date of his coronation in his ninth year, since there is no date mentioned in connexion with him after year 9 which appears on wine jars found in his tomb."










Page 32

Part 6 "3. You have finally located in your search the only passage or use of the number 666 in the entire written record. In vain did you search for another, for no other corresponding witness exists any- where. For it is here at this point in the record (Rev. 13:18) that the perversion of this number made entry, calculated and deliberate in its destructive intent. In the (four) references to this subject that follow, the number becomes a mark that is not My Seal. The few references that follow go on to expand the prized lie that it is the "mark of the beast" and even that it appears in the forehead as well as the hand. Once an awareness is born of these interferences and the motive, the entire proposal is clearly exposed.

4. The number 999 is identified as truly of My Kingdom. It rep-resents a Divine number of the Creation of Life itself in this and other Universes. This is a widely known fact in other worlds. It is a code number within the consciousness of many who have come to Page 32 / this planet to serve the father, and who are actual extensions of myself. To disguise this number as a mark of the fallen ones has dia-bolically and thoroughly confused the souls of this planet, but it was easily accomplished by another source simply by inverting the number upside down."

Page 32

Part 6

"...3. You have finally located in your search the only passage or use of the number 666 in the entire written record. In vain did you search for another, for no other corresponding witness exists any- where. For it is here at this point in the record (Rev. 13:18)..."

4. The number 999 is identified as truly of My Kingdom. It rep-resents a Divine number of the Creation of Life itself in this and other Universes."

"...but it was easily accomplished by another source simply by inverting the number upside down."

simply by inverting the number upside down."



Siegfried Mandel


Page number (omitted)

"Appendix 5. Symbols Atomic Numbers, and Atomic Weights of Elements (1947)

 Dysprosium . Symbol Dy . Atomic Number 66 . Atomic Weight of Elements 162.46

Einsteinium . Symbol Es . Atomic Weight 99 . Atomic Weight of Elements 253"

Alphabetical sequence as presented in book

9 most puzzling ancient artifacts

1.The Groved Spheres Klerksdorp sphere

Over the last few decades, miners in South Africa have been digging up mysterious metal spheres. Origin unknown, these spheres measure approximately an inch or so in diameter, and some are etched with three parallel grooves running around the equator. Two types of spheres have been found: one is composed of a solid bluish metal with flecks of white; the other is hollowed out and filled with a spongy white substance. The kicker is that the rock in which they where found is Precambrian - and dated to 2.8 billion years old! Who made them and for what purpose is unknown.

2.The Dropa Stones The Dropa Stone Discs

In 1938, an archeological expedition led by Dr. Chi Pu Tei into the Baian-Kara-Ula mountains of China made an astonishing discovery in some caves that had apparently been occupied by some ancient culture. Buried in the dust of ages on the cave floor were hundreds of stone disks. Measuring about nine inches in diameter, each had a circle cut into the center and was etched with a spiral groove, making it look for all the world like some ancient phonograph record some 10,000 to 12,000 years old. The spiral groove, it turns out, is actually composed of tiny hieroglyphics that tell the incredible story of spaceships from some distant world that crash-landed in the mountains. The ships were piloted by people who called themselves the Dropa, and the remains of whose descendents, possibly, were found in the cave.

3.The Ica Stones Ica stones

In the 1930s, Dr. Javier Cabrera, a medical doctor, received a gift of a strange stone from a local farmer. Dr. Cabrera was so intrigued that he collected more than 1,100 of these andesite stones, which are estimated to be between 500 and 1,500 years old and have become known collectively as the Ica Stones. The stones bear etchings, many of which are sexually graphic (which was common to the culture); some picture idols and others depict such practices as open-heart surgery and brain transplants. The most astonishing etchings, however, clearly represent dinosaurs - brontosaurs, triceratops (see photo), stegosaurus and pterosaurs. While skeptics consider the Ica Stones a hoax, their authenticity has neither been proved or disproved.

4.The Antikythera Mechanism Antikythera Mechanism

A perplexing artifact was recovered by sponge-divers from a shipwreck in 1900 off the coast of Antikythera, a small island that lies northwest of Crete. The divers brought up from the wreck a great many marble and and bronze statues that had apparently been the ship's cargo. Among the findings was a hunk of corroded bronze that contained some kind of mechanism composed of many gears and wheels. Writing on the case indicated that it was made in 80 B.C., and many experts at first thought it was an astrolabe, an astronomer's tool. An x-ray of the mechanism, however, revealed it to be far more complex, containing a sophisticated system of differential gears. Gearing of this complexity was not known to exist until 1575! It is still unknown who constructed this amazing instrument 2,000 years ago or how the technology was lost.

5. The Baghdad Battery Baghdad Battery

Today batteries can be found in any grocery, drug, convenience and department store you come across. Well, here's a battery that's 2,000 years old! Known as the Baghdad Battery, this curiosity was found in the ruins of a Parthian village believed to date back to between 248 B.C. and 226 A.D. The device consists of a 5-1/2-inch high clay vessel inside of which was a copper cylinder held in place by asphalt, and inside of that was an oxidized iron rod. Experts who examined it concluded that the device needed only to be filled with an acid or alkaline liquid to produce an electric charge. It is believed that this ancient battery might have been used for electroplating objects with gold. If so, how was this technology lost... and the battery not rediscovered for another 1,800 years?

6. The Coso Artifact Coso Artifact

While mineral hunting in the mountains of California near Olancha during the winter of 1961, Wallace Lane, Virginia Maxey and Mike Mikesell found a rock, among many others, that they thought was a geode - a good addition for their gem shop. Upon cutting it open, however, Mikesell found an object inside that seemed to be made of white porcelain. In the center was a shaft of shiny metal. Experts estimated that, if this was a geode, it should have taken about 500,000 years for this fossil-encrusted nodule to form, yet the object inside was obviously of sophisticated human manufacture. Further investigation revealed that the porcelain was surround by a hexagonal casing, and an x-ray revealed a tiny spring at one end, like a spark plug. There's a bit of controversy around this artifact, as you can imagine. Some contend that the artifact was not inside a geode at all, but encased in hardened clay. The artifact itself has been identified by experts as a 1920s-era Champion spark plug. Unfortunately, the Coso Artifact has gone missing and cannot be thoroughly examined. Is there a natural explanation for it? Or was it found, as the discoverer claimed, inside a geode? If so, how could a 1920s sparkplug get inside a 500,000-year-old rock?

7. Ancient Model Aircraft Ancient Model Aircraft

There are artifacts belonging to ancient Egyptian and Central American cultures that look amazingly like modern-day aircraft. The Egyptian artifact, found in a tomb at Saqquara, Egypt in 1898, is a six-inch wooden object that strongly resembles a model airplane, with fuselage, wings and tail. Experts believe the object is so aerodynamic that it is actually able to glide. The small object discovered in Central America (shown at right), and estimated to be 1,000 years old, is made of gold and could easily be mistaken for a model of a delta-wing aircraft - or even the Space Shuttle. It even features what looks like a pilot's seat.

8. Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica Giant Stone Balls of Costa Rica

Workmen hacking and burning their way through the dense jungle of Costa Rica to clear an area for banana plantations in the 1930s stumbled upon some incredible objects: dozens of stone balls, many of which were perfectly spherical. They varied in size from as small as a tennis ball to an astonishing 8 feet in diameter and weighing 16 tons! Although the great stone balls are clearly man-made, it is unknown who made them, for what purpose and, most puzzling, how they achieved such spherical precision.

9. Impossible Fossils Impossible Fossils

Fossils, as we learned in grade school, appear in rocks that were formed many thousands of years ago. Yet there are a number of fossils that just don't make geological or historical sense. A fossil of a human handprint, for example, was found in limestone estimated to be 110 million years old. What appears to be a fossilized human finger found in the Canadian Arctic also dates back 100 to 110 million years ago. And what appears to be the fossil of a human footprint, possibly wearing a sandal, was found near Delta, Utah in a shale deposit estimated to be 300 million to 600 million years old.

What are we to make of these finds? There are several possibilities:

•Intelligent humans date back much, much further than we realize.
•Other intelligent beings and civilizations existed on earth far beyond our recorded history.
•Our dating methods are completely inaccurate, and that stone, coal and fossils form much more rapidly than we now estimate.
In any case, these examples - and there are many more - should prompt any curious and open-minded scientist to reexamine and rethink the true history of life on earth.

[edit on 5/18/2010 by DarkStormCrow]

Page 2
Originally posted by Masterjaden

Originally posted by hippomchippo

Originally posted by RedCairo
Interesting all the effort online to debunk the Dropa. There are photos from the 50's of the stones; and they were translated; what is the question about them again? As they were found in China information was less 'forthcoming' than it would have been from other government/cultures, not surprising. The assumption of hoax is what again?




It takes no effort to debunk something the author has already debunked.
The writer of sungods in exile has already said openly that they are a hoax, why is it you can't simply believe that?


ummm let's see, because you or someone else simply stating that it is a hoax or has been debunked doesn't tell us anything other than that you are inclined to believe it to be a hoax.

I mean the earth is flat, it was shown to be flat 600 years ago, why can't you just accept that the earth is flat???

see the point??

Give some valid evidence that it is a hoax other than "It flies in the face of what we are told is true" and then maybe we'll consider accepting it as a hoax, but speaking for myself, without evidence I'll let my own reason decide whether or not to believe it, but I won't be stupid enough to out and out say it is a hoax just because it is counter to accepted chronologies.



The person who wrote the first story about the dropa stones has admitted its a hoax, I don't expect you to take my word for it, I expect you to take the hoaxers word for it, because he created the entire mystery.
I never once said i didn't accept it because it conflicts with my ideas, and guess what? I believe ancient cultures were alot more advanced than we gave credit for, I just don't blindly accept hoaxed material.

[edit on 19-5-2010 by hippomchippo]

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 03:03 PM by Blue Shift

Originally posted by pavil
I'm pretty sure 2 and 3 have been proven to be hoaxes. No one has actually seen the Dropa stones and there is a person who has claimed to have made the other ones.


I think that the majority of these have either proven to be hoaxes or something mundane. I'll let y'all find out which ones might not be.

(The "Baghdad Battery" has recently been explained as a kind of happenstance where a scroll wound around a metal center has decayed away, leaving the stuff used in the failed attempt to preserve it.)

[edit on 19-5-2010 by Blue Shift]

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 03:31 PM by WHOS READY

Originally posted by heyJude

Originally posted by pavil
No one has actually seen the Dropa stones and there is a person who has claimed to have made the other ones.


Dang, that sucks. That was the one I found most interesting. Too good to be true I suppose.


my gut is telling me not to dismiss 2 and 3 completely! truth is sstranger than fiction!! i really wouldn't be surprised if they're legit!

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 04:45 PM by logican

I think given that the origin/veracity of many of these artifacts, as pointed out by others, is somewhat ropey, I would, if I were the OP, re-evaluate my conclusion. As mentioned in the conclusion, and also the only part I would agree with, "Other intelligent beings and civilizations existed on earth far beyond our recorded history", it is probably worth saying that our recorded history is extremely short, some 6 thousand years or so. It's evident throughout history that advancement differs from society to society, so it's never exactly a level playing field in that regard. To clarify I don't think a pre-historical civilisation flew in airplanes or had hi-def tv's, but rather had a better grasp of maths, astronomy and sailing for example. So curious and open-minded yes, these examples no.

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 04:56 PM by godspunchline

If the Klerksdorp spheres are the number 1 puzzling ancient artifact out there, then there isn't much mystery in the world. Numerous geologists have claimed they are the result of natural processes. Why not throw the Moqui Marbles from Utah on the list?

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 05:04 PM by DarkStormCrow


reply to post by godspunchline


Really the list is just 9 things I find interesting and worthy of discussion, the list isnt really a particular order like a top 10 list or something, numbers are for reference and breakdown only. If you know of other weird stuff like the Marbles feel free to add them into this thread or start a thread on them.

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 05:22 PM by agentofchaos

reply to post by Kandinsky


Dude you make some outstanding claims there. How about you bring some people speaking out on it or atleast some kind of evidence to back you up, if it's so easily dismissed?

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 10:44 PM by The Drunken Cow

reply to post by DarkStormCrow


the impossible fossils with human footprints and hand prints could also have another (yet most people think is completely impossible) explanation, and thats that humans in the very distant future found a way to make time travel possible. and they came back and tried to tell us something. some ancient astronaut theorists believe the same.

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 11:07 PM by Logarock

The Coso Artifact is very interesting.

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reply posted on 19-5-2010 @ 11:39 PM by Zerbst

Not exactly an artifact but rather an amazing enigma are the Nazca Lines of Peru. I've yet to hear of an attempt to debunk this? Very interesting to say the least.

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 12:28 AM by Kandinsky

reply to post by agentofchaos



Dude you make some outstanding claims there. How about you bring some people speaking out on it or atleast some kind of evidence to back you up, if it's so easily dismissed?


These are core stories that I assumed most ATSers would already know or ATS search is a way to find out for yourself. There are sources for all the points made in the earlier post. I'm happy to post them another's a couple to see what you think...

The Dropa Stones were created by the fictional author of 'Sungods in Exile'-David Agamon (David Gamon was his real name). The Chinese Prof was also made up. The actual writer came clean in the mid-90s in an interview with Fortean Times. He considered it a satire on the people buying the Daniken books (massive in the 70s). There are real flat discs found in China, but they are not related to the stories of Dropa Stones.
* Dropa Stones
* Sungods in Exile
* Example of Chines disc

The Ica Stones were made in Peru in the 20th Century. In a poor nation, it's understandable to exploit richer, gullible visitors. The Fortean Times has a long and balanced article about them right here.

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 12:38 AM by drkid

Good stuff i learned a few new things!

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 12:50 AM by barkingdogamato

Thanks. Great thread. Several I've heard of or seen, but got a new one in there.

Another sleepless night, doing research. I love 'em.

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 01:04 AM by Titen-Sxull

reply to post by DarkStormCrow


Pretty sure the Ica Stones are a proven 100% hoax, not sure on the rest of them.

The Antikythera device is definitely my favorite, it looks like something right out of science fiction or an Indiana Jones film. The best part of course is that it is generally considered authentic by the scientific community something that most OOPARTs definitely aren't. It's just a testament to how much of human history is lost to us.

Good post overall

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 01:15 AM by ANNED

I live at China Lake just south of where the Coso Artifact was found.

Those of use who have looked for geodes and historic artifices in the area believe it was a old spark plug wrapped in pottery clay and then fired. there is a history of pottery kilns and ore smelters in the area.

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 02:32 AM by Tharsis

Great article! S&F, very fun read.

I like the suggestion about the animals embedded in rock, some found alive.

I read about those in a couple Charles Berlitz books I have.

I also like the Piri Reis map...

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 07:20 AM by Harte

Originally posted by agentofchaos
reply to post by Kandinsky


Dude you make some outstanding claims there. How about you bring some people speaking out on it or atleast some kind of evidence to back you up, if it's so easily dismissed?



Would you even consider that it was the OP that was making thje MOST "outstanding" claims here?

If so, why didn't you ask him to bring "some kind of evidence?"


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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 08:07 AM by TheArxmaster

As far as the model airplanes go, there are also wall engravings found in other ancient cultures that depict such things as helicopters and even spacecraft. The one possible explanation that I've never heard put forth to explain these things is that it is possible that the mystics of antiquity had the ability to 'see' into the future. Could it be that they simply carved images of what they saw?
However, I do also agree that they were as intelligent, if not moreso in some areas, than we are today and that they may very well have had some technologies that we, in our modern "advanced" arrogance, are reluctant to acknowledge.
It is also a "dead horse" fact that our methods of dating are extremely flawed, though few in the scientific community are willing to admit it. Scientific truth, it seems, is not nearly as important to them as social and professional acceptance.

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 08:29 AM by Daveh

good thread...i really like the klerksdorp speres...never heard of em before...nice

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 10:57 AM by consigliere

reply to post by DarkStormCrow


S&F! Great thread 'Storm! a few of those finds I wasn't familiar with, and I will be researching them,,,thanks. This is the reason I stopped lurking and joined in on the conversation.The Impossible Fossil just blows me away,,,it seems that even with all "we"(ATSers)know,,,that dig seems to blow almost everything we believe regarding the origin of our species out of the water,,whether ancient astronauts or God,,,the timeline is in question. Shoes 3 million years ago????? Awesome Bro!

Page 3

9 most puzzling ancient artifacts

<< 1 2 3 >>

reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 12:15 PM by agentofchaos

reply to post by Harte


Because he already provided information backing up what he said. The guy just said some stuff and we're suppose to just beleive it, he didn't even give a link saying who said any of those things. Didn't post any of those christian sites...this is ATS, if you're going to say something be ready to back it up.

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reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 12:15 PM by Harte

Originally posted by TheArxmaster
As far as the model airplanes go, there are also wall engravings found in other ancient cultures that depict such things as helicopters and even spacecraft. The one possible explanation that I've never heard put forth to explain these things is that it is possible that the mystics of antiquity had the ability to 'see' into the future. Could it be that they simply carved images of what they saw?

Dude, that's a written language, not artwork.

You'll find this piece of the "Two Ladies" titulary in the Temple of Osiris at Abydos in Egypt.

It's part of the titulary (list of titles held by the king) that runs around that room near the ceiling, but they never show you the rest of it. Just this one piece.

This has been explained to death here at ATS, most lucidly by Byrd, but even some rude know-it-all disinformation agent named Harte has explained it before, right here in this old post.

If you want the facts, then read that post carefully, go to the two sites I linked in it, and (especially on that wiki page) carefully examine the photos as I describe in that post.

If you don't care to know the facts, congratulations, you are in the majority (it seems) at ATS.


copyright & usage

reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 12:20 PM by agentofchaos

reply to post by Kandinsky


Well I hadn't and thank you for providing some stuff for me to read. Sorry if I came by as a jerk, just don't like when people just declare stuff like that and don't give atleast a little bit to back it up. Sure, I could have looked a lot into it, but I'm just sayin it's helps your argument so much better if you just post that stuff, then you don't get a-holes such as myself jammin you up lol...

copyright & usage

reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 01:08 PM by ScarletNyx

Star and flag for a good before work thread! The only OOP I do not like in this list is the Ica Stones - clearly a fake but still pretty and wonderful nonetheless.

I actually don't have a problem with artifacts like the Stones, as long as they are portrayed as works of "What if?" instead of "This happened". Science is just geeks mixing colored water together without wonder and abstract thought.

copyright & usage is advertising supported.

reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 01:49 PM by Harte

Originally posted by agentofchaos
reply to post by Harte


Because he already provided information backing up what he said. The guy just said some stuff and we're suppose to just beleive it, he didn't even give a link saying who said any of those things. Didn't post any of those christian sites...this is ATS, if you're going to say something be ready to back it up.

I don't understand this at all.

I mean, the OP posted a link to a creationist site. The site had no information backing anything up. The linked site didn't indicate who said any of those things, the linked site infers that "we're suppose to just beleive it."

Yet no comment from you on these obvious faults in the OP, only that Kandinsky wasn't "backing up his claims."

Seemed a little weird to me.


copyright & usage

reply posted on 20-5-2010 @ 03:33 PM by GeminiSky


What about the ones that have details in them that are only visible with a blacklight or UV light?

The ones that Klaus Dona has presented are very interesting




Arthur C. Clarke 1956

Introduction to 1989 Edition


"However I have made some interesting discoveries; for instance, on the very first page of the first story, I see the number 9000. Ive no idea why I selected it again for HALs serial number 20 years later. . . "


"see the number



Ive no idea why I selected it again for HALs serial number 20 years later. . . "




Margaret A. Murray 1951

Page 164
"The underlying basic religion and the three great challenges in creed and ritual affected one another. New ideas of God and of the relation between God and man were evolved by the clash or combination of the varying forms of religion, and this growth from a primitive and savage cult to the highest religious ideals can be best studied in the i worship and ritual of Osiris.-
The cult of Osiris is also the most important of all the Egyptian cults because it belonged to all classes from the highest to the lowest. It is perhaps the most perfect example of that belief which is found in so many countries, viz. that God is incarnate in man, which belief is usually accompanied by the rite of killing the Divine Man.
The chosen man is almost invariably the king. In him dwells the Spirit of God, and he thus becomes God Incarnate. The indwelling Spirit is that of the Creator, the Giver of Life, and to the Incarnate God was therefore ascribed the power to give fertility to his people and land. In the eyes of his subjects the king was actually God.'" The appeal of such a belief is obvious, God Himself living and moving among His people, visible to their eyes, a man amongst men but at the same time possessing the mystic and mighty power of God. With this belief there went another belief, which to the primitive mind was the logical corollary. The Spirit was not necessarily im-mortal, any more than the body in which it was incarnate; nor was it exempt from the failure of the bodily powers which come with age. If the Divine Man grew old and became weaker, the Spirit within him also grew weaker; if the Divine Man died a natural death or was accidentally killed, the Spirit shared the same fate. If the Creator Spirit, the Force of reproduction, were dead, what.could happen to the worshippers but death and destruction: they themselves and all their belongings were doomed. To prevent so disastrous a fate, some means had to be devised for removing the Spirit from its ageing home and housing it in a younger, stronger body. The only way by which the Divine Spirit could be removed was by the death of the man in whom it was incarnate; and as he could not be allowed to die a natural death, he had to be killed. This had to be done with every kind of precaution, every kind of religious ceremony, for it was equivalent to killing a god. It follows then that while the king was young and active he was sacrosanct, not a finger might be raised against him, and his subjects, literally his worshippers, were ready to die in his defence; but when he showed any sign of age and his time had come, not.a finger could be raised to save him.
In many countries the Divine King was allowed to reign for a term of years only, usually seven or nine or multiples of those numbers.
* See Wainwright, The Sky Religion in Egypt.




Thomas Bullfinch


Page 360

Myth of Osiris and Isis

Osiris and Isis were at one time induced to descend to the earth to bestow gifts and blessings on its inhabitants. Isis showed them first the use of wheat and barley, and Osiris made the instruments of agri- culture and taught men the use of them, as well as how to harness the ox to the plough. He then gave men laws, the institution of marriage, a civil organiza- tion, and taught them how to worship the gods. After he had thus made the valley of the Nile a happy country, he assembled a host with which he went to bestow his blessings upon the rest of the world. He conquered the nations everywhere, but not with weapons, only with music and eloquence. His brother Typhon saw this, and filled with envy and malice sought during his absence to usurp his throne. But Isis, who held the reins of government, frustrated his plans. Still more embittered, he now resolved to kill his brother. This he did in the following manner: Having organized a conspiracy of seventy - two members, he went with them to the feast which was celebrated in honour of the king's return. He then caused a box or chest to be brought in, which had been made to fit exactly the size of Osiris, and declared,that he would give that chest of precious wood to whoso-ever could get into it. The rest tried in vain, but no sooner was Osiris in it than Typhon and his com- panions closed the lid and flung the chest into the Nile. When Isis heard of the cruel murder she wept and mourned, and then with her hair shorn, clothed in black and beating her breast, she sought diligently for the body of her husband. In this search she was materially assisted by Anubis, the son of Osiris and Nephthys. They sought in vain for some time; for Page361/ when the chest, carried by the waves to the shores of Byblos, had become entangled in the reeds that grew at the edge of the water, the divine power that dwelt in the body of Osiris imparted such strength to the shrub that it grew into a mighty tree, enclosing in its trunk the coffin of the god. This tree with its sacred deposit was shortly after felled, and erected as a column in the palace of the king of Phrenicia. But at length, by the aid of Anubis and the sacred birds, Isis ascer-tained these facts, and then went to the royal city. There she offered herself at the palace as a servant, and, being admitted, threw off her disguise and appeared as the goddess, surrounded with thunder and lightning. Striking the column with her wand, she caused it to split open and give up the sacred coffin. This she seized and returned with it, and concealed it .in the depth of a forest, but Typhon discovered it, and cutting the body into fourteen pieces scattered them hither and thither. After a tedious search Isis found thirteen pieces, the fishes of the Nile having eaten the other. This she replaced by an imitation of sycamore wood, and buried the body at Philoe, which became ever after the great burying-place of the nation, and the spot to which pilgrimages were made from all parts of the country. A temple of surpassing magnificence was also erected there in honour of the god, and at every place where one of his limbs had been found minor temples and tombs were built to commemorate the event. Osiris became after that the tutelar deity of the Egyptians. His soul was supposed always to inhabit the body of the bull Apis, and at his death to transfer itself to his successor.


72 x 14 = 1008 1 + 8 = 9

72 x 13 = 936

13 + 14 = 27




Thomas Mann

1875 - 1955

Page 890 8 x 9 72=


"In all there were two-and-seventy conspirators privy to the plot. It was a proper and a pregnant number, for there had been just sev-enty-two when red Set lured Usir into the chest. And these seventy-two in their turn had had good cosmic ground to be no more and no less than that number. For it is just that number of groups of five weeks which make up the three hundred and sixty days of the year, not counting the odd days; and there are just seventy-two days in the dry fifth of the year, when the gauge shows that the Nourisher has reached his lowest ebb, and the god sinks into his grave. So where there is conspiracy anywhere in the world it is requisite and custom-ary for the number of conspirators to be seventy-two. And if the plot fail, the failure shows that if this number had not been adhered to it would have failed even worse."





Tom Hare

Page185 /6


O noble ones in the presence of Lord Atum,
Here am I, come before you,
Fear me, in accordance with what you know.
It is I whom the Sole Lord created before there were yet two things in this land,
When he sent forth his sole eye,
When he was alone, going forth from his own mouth,

When his million ka were there, protection for his retinue,
When he spoke with one who comes to being with him, over whom he rules,
When he took Hu upon his speech.
It is I who am the very son of Who-Bore-All, born before he had a mother,

And I am under the protection of the command of the Sole Lord,
It is I who give life to the Ennead,
It is I who act howsoever I like, father of gods, lofty of standard,
who make the gods effective in accordance with the charge of Who-Bore- All,
August god who eats and speaks with his mouth.
I am fallen silent,
I have bowed down,
I am come shod, a Bulls of the Sky,
I am seated, a Bulls of Nut, in this my dignity, Greatest of Lord of Kas, Heritor of Atum,
I have come.
I take my throne.
I gather unto me my dignity.
All is mine, since before you came to being, Gods.
Go down upon your haunches.
I am Magic.

"O noble ones in the presence of Lord Atum, Here am I, come before you,"

"O noble ones in the presence of Lord 1234, Here am 9, come before 7,"

Page185 /6 Chapter 4


O noble ones in the presence of Lord 1234,
Here am 9, come before you,
Fear me, in accordance with what you know.
It is 9 whom the Sole Lord created before there were yet two things in this land,
When he sent forth his sole eye,
When he was alone, going forth from his own mouth,

When his million ka were there, protection for his retinue,
When he spoke with one who comes to being with him, over whom he rules,
When he took Hu upon his speech.
It is 9 who am the very son of Who-Bore-All, born before he had a mother,

And 9 am under the protection of the command of the Sole Lord,
It is 9 who give life to the Ennead,
It is 9 who act howsoever 9 like, father of gods, lofty of standard,
who make the gods effective in accordance with the charge of Who-Bore- All,
August god who eats and speaks with his mouth.
9 am fallen silent,
9 have bowed down,
9 am come shod, a Bulls of the Sky,
9 am seated, a Bulls of Nut, in this my dignity, Greatest of Lord of Kas, Heritor of 1234,
9 have come.
9 take my throne.
9 gather unto me my dignity.
All is mine, since before you came to being, Gods.
Go down upon your haunches.
9 am Magic.

15 x 9 = 135




Longfield Beatty


Page 203

"I think that is about as far as we dare go, though additional correspondences certainly present specious credentials. But we have all the essentials and can afford to ignore the rest, even including Anubis, the "Opener of the Way," whose nature completely eludes me. Actually we only require the human equation, No.4 on the Table; and so we can leave generalities in favour of the familiar territory of the Hero. The road is plain enough, indeed the composite Osiris / Horus bears nearly all the symbols of the Christ. As in the case of Hercules) / Page 204 / it is as well to use a tabulation, chiefly so as to preserve the sense of distinct attributes.

The Symbols of Osiris / Horus.
1. Horus is conceived of the Spirit (Ra) as well as by human Father (Osiris) and a marvellous Mother (Isis). The Father is a King.

2.. The birth of the Child is miraculous. According to Plutarch the event took place out of time. His version describes Nut as giving birth to Osiris (who is here the Hero-child) on a day made beyond the year. To make this day, light had been "won" from Ra by Silene (Moon). At the time of the birth a voice was heard pro-claiming: "The Lord of all the earth is born."

In a less abstract account the Child (now Horus) is conceived from the dead body of Osiris, which had been reintegrated by Isis and vivified by Thoth.

3. The Child (Horus) becomes a Warrior. He seizes the diadem from his Mother's head (overcoming the Mother. . . gaining power over matter). He is in constant battle with the enemy of his Divine Father, though destined to ultimate victory .

4. The Warrior-King (Osiris) is betrayed by Set, whose followers nail him down in a wonderful chest of wood which thus becomes his coffin. The chest is set adrift and is eventually washed ashore in a foreign land. There a tree grew round the chest, completely enclosing it. The tree, which was evidently of peculiar merit (Tree of Life) was taken to the palace of the queen of / Page 205 / the land, Atenais, who may be Istar . . . that Asiatic Mother whose most popular attribute was the annual slaughter of her lover. Indeed, it might well have been the womb (or palace) of the Destroyer which enclosed the Hero (incest), for the Destroyer is an aspect of Isis 1 in her capacity of Dual Mother. It is not surprising, therefore, that Isis found the magical tree and brought it back to Byblos in Egypt where it was at one time worshipped. It was there, presumably, that the Tree of Death became the Tree of Birth and Osiris rose from the dead to become co-equal with Ra.

5. The very important myth of the dismemberment of Osiris should be considered apart from the points just dealt with, since it represents a cosmic rather than a mystical allegory. As I see it, the scattering of the Father's members over the Earth is equivalent to the diffusion of conscious-ness, which has been recognised as the descent of Spirit into Matter. The time when the diffusion is greatest is clearly at the bottom of the descent (" fall "). Thereafter the ascent proceeds through Matter until the Triple Christ is born of a human mother; so that it might be said that the Mother reintegrated the Father so that from him she might bear the Son. The point is the most difficult one which we have yet had to consider, and I have not attempted to treat it fully, partly on that account, and partly because it is not essential to the argument. The implications of the myth in our own terms will / Page 206 / be found a few pages hence under the symbols of Midsummer (q.v.). 1 Nepthys.

From the career of the Hero as it has just been outlined, it is obvious that the peak of the whole system is that of the resurrection, necessarily an abstract and therefore difficult concept. Perhaps for that reason there is a great deal of confusion in the rituals, though beneath trivialities and inconsistencies there is a certain amount of truth which cannot be hidden. After all, it is really of no consequence if whole mountains of falsehood are found in the course of the search for truth. All falsehood together cannot stand in the way of a very little truth. That the Mysteries of Osiris, which formed in their entirety a most elaborate drama, should have included much that is primitive and gross is only to be expected, as Budge himself says:

". . . There was not the smallest action on the part of any member of the men and women who acted the Osiris Drama, and not a sentence in the liturgy which did not refer to some historical happening of vital significance to the follower of Osiris. Many of these happenings dated from the dawn of the cult of Osiris, and the Egyptians of the Dynastic period, not knowing exactly what they were, followed tradition blindly.

(Op. cit., 515.)

With that qualification, I can confidently refer the reader to the standard sources, and for the sake of encouragement will give two quotations the like of which for sheer power in the terms of their faith are scarcely to be matched even in Christianity. . . . Yet, in a real sense, this is Christianity. The first citation is from the Papyrus of Nekht (Brit. Mus. 10471) and is taken from Shorter (op. cit., p. 65)

Page 207






Royal Commander


"He saith, Homage to thee who art brilliant'and mighty

When thou hast dawned in the horizon of the sky there is praise of thee in the mouth of all people. Thou art become beautiful and young as a Disc in the hand of thy Mother. Dawn thou in every place, thy heart being enlarged forever!

"The divinities of the Two Lands come to thee bowing down, they give praise at thy shining forth. Thou dawnest in the horizon of the sky, thou brightenest the Two Lands with Malachite.

"Thou art the Divine Youth. the Heir of Eternity. who begat himself and brought himself forth, King of this land. ruler of the Tuat. Chief of the Districts of the Other World who came forth from the Water. who emerged from Nun. who reared himself and made splendid his children I

"Living God. Lord of Love I All folk live when thou shinest. dawning as King of the Gods. 0 Lord of the Sky. Lord of the Earth. King of Truth. Lord of Eternity. Ruler of Everlasting. Sovereign of all the Gods. Living God who made Eternity. who created the sky and established himself therein!



are in jubilation at thy shining forth. the earth is in joy at beholding thy beams. the people come forth rejoicing to behold thy beauty every day."

And the next quotation is "relayed" from Budge (op. cit.. p. 52.1). having come from Papyrus No. 10188 (Brit. Mus.). There have been some omissions in order to reinforce as much as possible the particular aspect of it which is our immediate concern. To this end also notes have been added to certain passages of particular importance"







over the dead


"Beautiful Youth, come to thy exalted house at once: we see thee not.

"Hail, beautiful boy, come to thy house, draw nigh after thy separation from us

"Hail Beautiful Youth, Pilot of Time, who groweth except at this hour.

"Holy image of his Father, mysterious essence proceeding from Tem.

"The Lord! How much more wonderful is he than his

Father, the first-born son of the womb of his mother.

"Come back to us in thy actual form; we will embrace

thee. Depart not from us, thou Beautiful Face, dearly beloved

one, the image of Tem, Master of Love.

"Come thou in peace, our Lord, we would see thee.

"Great Mighty One among the Gods, the road that thou

travellest cannot be described.

"The Babe, the Child at morn and at eve, except when

thou encirclest the heavens and the earth with thy bodily form.

"Come, thou Babe, growing young when setting, our

Lord, we would see thee.

"Come in peace, Great Babe of His Father, thou art

established in thy house.

"Whilst thou travellest thou art hymned by us, and

life springeth up for us out of thy nothingness. O our Lord,

come in peace, let us see thee.

"Hail Beautiful Boy, come to thy exalted house.; let thy

back be to thy house. The Gods are upon their thrones.

Hail ! come in peace, King.

"Babe! How lovely it is to see thee! Come, come to us,

O Great One, glorify our love.

"O ye gods who are in Heaven.

O ye gods who are in the Tuat.

O ye gods who are in the Abyss.

O ye gods who are in the service of the Deep.

We follow the Lord, the Lord, of Love!"





Longfield Beatty 1939

Page 285

"Common language derives from a common source in which is the harmony of all contradictions and the mean- / Page 286 / ing of all symbols. We have tried to demonstrate some of the intellectual fruit of such symbols, chiefly in regard to the individual; but the highest flights of language are fitted for the cosmic rather than the mystic allegory. The sublimation which from Stone made Fire, from Water, Wine, from Behemoth, Christ the King, carries humanity out of the depths of mortality into a " new heaven and a new earth."

"And he shewed me a river of water of life clear as crystal '.- proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of the street of it and on either side of the river was there the Tree of Life. . . . And the leaves of the Tree were for the healing of nations." (Rev. xxii, 1-2.)

But why do the nations require healing and what is the nature of their wound?

"And I stood upon the sand of the sea and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having upon his heads the name of blasphemy. . . . And power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
cc And all that dwell in the earth shall worship him. . . . And no man might buy and sell save he had the mark, or the name of the beast or the number of his name. And his number is 666."
(Rev. xiii).

For the individual there is a certain "dark night," and for humanity also. The night is hideous with tempest, earthquake, terrible beasts, and fire. But after these is heard a voice, there is found a treasure, and the Golden Flower blooms in the Purple Hall of the City of Jade.
At this time also the Knight of the Quest crosses th glass drawbridge of the Castle of Souls, and is conducted to the Hall of Roses in which the Rich King Fisher and / Page287 / his company are healed by eucharistic magic and the asking of the Question.
All these ideas, however, are included in one, just as the intricate pantheon of Egypt is implicit in the One
One. For at the end of the night dawns the day" Omega" .
when the Unity itself is known.
" They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: and the earth shall be full of the glory of the Lord as the waters cover the sea."

" Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened,
And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped,
Then shall the lame man leap as an hart,
And the tongue of the dumb sing. . . .
And an highway shall be there, and a way,
And it shall be called the Way of Holiness;
The unclean shall not pass over it ;
But it shall be for those, the wayfaring men. . . ." (Isaiah.)

In that day man recognises his Father at full stature:
Thou art Ra-Herakhty, the Divine Youth, Heir of Eternity, who begat himself and brought forth himself, King of this land, ruler of the Tuat, chief of the districts of the Other World, who came forth from the water, who emerged from Nun, who reared himself and made splendid his children."
(Papyrus of Nekht, Brit. Mus., No. 10471.)
There is no longer Father and Son but undivided Unity, so that Man proclaims not only the identity of his God, but his own identity also:

" I am the God Atum, I who alone was.
I am the God Re at his first splendour.
I am the great God, self-created, God of Gods,
To whom no other God compares." /Page 288 /

I was yesterday and know to-morrow; the battle-ground of Gods was made when I spoke. . . .
My impurity is driven. away, and the sin which was in me is overcome.
I go on my way to where I wash my head in the sea of the righteous.
I arrive at this land of the glorified and enter through the splendid portal.
Thou, who standest before me, stretch out to me thy hands. It is I, I am become one of thee.
Daily I am together with my Father Atum."
(ERMAN: Aegypten, p. 4°9.)
Quoted more fully on p. 100.
To this tremendous recognition there is a response:
"And let the Spirit and the Bride say, Come.
And let him that heareth say, Come.
And let him that is athirst come.
And whosoever will, let him take of the waters of life freely." (Rev.)




Maurice M Cotterell 1997

"So, the clues all point to a numerical matrix the conclusion of which culminates in 9 9 9 9 9. Taking 9 each of the Maya cycles and also 9 of the 260-day Maya years we arrive at the message of the Temple of Inscriptions: 1,366,560.
The sceptic might argue that 'if we looked hard enough then all of these numbers could have been found somewhere'. The point is, firstly, that we have not looked very hard at all, and secondly, you will be hard pressed to duplicate this matrix using other references inside the pyramid. The only exception might be the 2 figurines and the 22 steps mentioned ear-lier. But, like the beads we shall account for these in due course. Finally, another clue to the matrix can be found on the outside of the steps of the pyramid which supports our analysis (see Appendix one vi).
And this is only the beginning because now we embark upon a journey inside the mind of man, through the triangular door and into the Amazing Lid of Palenque..."



Caitlin Mathews



Page 72



Page 38



54 72 108




The elements of egyptian wisdom

naomi ozaniec 1994

Page 101


The mummies of ancient Egypt are living symbols of the transformative process of living and dying.
Normandie Ellis, Return to Egypt
Everyone is familiar with the egyptian mummy. The word is derived from the Persian word 'moumia' meaning bitumen. A degree of desiccation naturally occurred in the hot dry sands. This simple observation was refined from the earliest primitive burials through time into the highskil1 of the embalmer's art. From ordinary and uninspiring beginnings, circular pits and preserved bodies, came the magnificant rock­cut tombs and the lavish cult of the dead.
We who bury our dead quickly and with little ceremony find it difficult to comprehend the motives of a people who bestowed stich care on the dead. Contemporary funeral liturgy expresses our belief in the resurrection and the life to come. Individually we seem very uncertain about such matters. We hope for a resurrection, so we abandon the body quickly. The life of the body has finished. The Egyptians believed in the after-life but fhey could not abandon the body. It too was divine.
We cannot begin to comprehend the Egyptian cult of the / Page 102 / dead until we establish the Egyptian view of life. The funeral Cl.stoms of a nation always reflect its philosophical stance. It is in the rites for the dead that we may assess the value placed on the living. The Egyptian cult of the dead shows us complexity, beauty and total commitment towards the life to come.

The Egyptians recognized a level of complexity in the human being that eludes our generally materialistic and rational outlook. We might grudgingly concede a polarity between body and soul, attributing the former to earthly existence and the latter to a heavenly existence. However even t..his simple duality exhausts the metaphysical vocabu­lfu~y of a secularized society. By contrast the Egyptians held a complex metaphysical system. The divine and the human 'Nera reconciled in flesh.
At t..lJ.e most material level the Egyptians conceived of the aufu. the flesh body. This composed and integrated all other more subtle bodies. The divine was believed to be present in matter. The corporeal remains were referred to as the lu'lat. This alone was without consciousness. The shadow ==-or shade was referred to as khabit. The sahu was the body ~ of gold. At the mental and emotional realms, the Egyptians - escribed sekhem the will, ren the name and ab the heart, .e seat of conscience. At spiritual levels we find the ka, ,6 animating spirit, the ba, the immortal soul and khu, the ivine intelligence. This hierarchy of being, from the physical to thespiritual, is not unlike that found in other metaphysical systems such as Qabalah.
The complexity takes us right into the burial chamber, the ho-use of gold, where it was customary to place sarcopha­gus within sarcophagus, vehicle within vehicle. The mum­mified body of Thtankhamun, Strong-Bull-fitting-of-created-
forms, Dynamic-of-Laws, Who-Calms-the-Two-Lands, Who­Propitiates-all-the-Gods, was laid in three coffins, a sarcopha­gus and four shrines.

The tomb of Tutankhamun gives us a glimpse of a splen­dour and glory beyond our imagining. This boy-king was an insignificant ruler, a pharaoh in the making; who was buried in a tomb originally prepared for another. His death was / /Page 103 / untimely, his funeral was unexpected. We can only imagine what glories tomb robbers have taken for ever. Yet in the tomb of a minor pharaoh we find exquisite beauty and craftsmanship beyond compare. This single complete tomb has shown us more than we could ever have hoped for. Here Tutankhamun rested within successive shrines, surrounded by the beautiful artefacts from everyday life and the symbols and images which promised resurrection.
Four shrines embraced the king's sarcophagus; each articu­lated the Egyptian belief in the life to come, through the sacred language of symbol and funerary text. Winged discs, symbols of liberation and rebirth, decorated the roof of the outermost shrine along with royal birds, the vulture and the falcon. The tet knot of Isis and the djed pillar of Osiris spoke of resurrection and well-being. Extracts from the Chapters of Coming Forth by Day were designed to empower the deceased. Underworld guardians were depicted to represent the forthcoming journey and its trials. The great funerary god­desses Isis and Nephthys stretched their wings in protective embrace.
These themes were continued upon the sarcophagus. Its roof showed a winged sun, a border of tet knots and djed pillars were inscribed around the base, the four protective goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Selkis and Neith stood in high relief, their wings outstretched to encompass the sides.
It is recorded that a gasp went up from the crowd of assem­bled dignitaries as the two sheets of covering linen were rolled back to reveal the outer coffin. Here was the face of Egypt in death. The coffin of cypress wood was modelled in relief with a thin layer of gesso overlaid with gold foil. Yet this was not the last resting place but only the first of three. The second coffin lay under floral offerings and proved to be even more magnificent than the first. It was inlaid with opaque glass to simulate carnelian, lapis lazuli and turquoise. The king held the crook and flail and wore the uraeus serpent crown along with the nemes head-dress, the traditional blue and gold striped headclotll. The third coffin was covered in a red linen shroud folded three times. The breast had been decorated with a collar of blue glass beads and various leaves and flowers. As / Page 104 / the mummy itself was unwrapped 150 pieces of jewellery were revealed. These were fashioned and positioned according to the Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. Here were the ritual symbols, the scarab, the serpent, the falcon and the vulture in a glorious evocation of the transformation from the human to the divine.

The gold mask of the pharaoh is arguably the most beautiful artefact in the world. The many contents of this tomb, its magical items and personal effects, its royal regalia and ritual jewellery are not the trappings of morbidity but a celebration of life. There is no doubt that the Egyptians =-envisaged an after-life. In truth the physical life and the after-life were seen as a continuous thread unbroken at death. The tomb is a testament to the wholeness of life. It contains the familiar symbols of life in dazzling combination. In death the Eg-yptians show us beauty beyond compare. In death we see the total commitment to life. Nothing that had known life was dispensed ungraciously. Two tiny foetuses who never knew the fullness of life were placed in the tomb, each in a tiny mummy case. If the funeral rites of a society truly offer a ~efiected image what might future generations learn about the times in which we live?

In the Treasury was a second gilded shrine standing on a sled. This was the canopic shrine which contained the internal organs of the king. This elaborate and beautiful sirrine with its protective goddesses has the inescapable air or a hallowed piece of work - even the individual organs were hallowed.


"The value that I calculated for length was extremely close to that.of the one published in Davidson and Aldersmith's book, their value being 1836 inches, and my theoretical value 1833,46 geodetic inches.
A considerable amount of time was required to calculate a satisfactory value for the length of the Gallery. I eventually found that the amount of hollowing-in at the base provided the ,clue. If 57.6 (the amount in inches by which the base is inset) is divided by pi or 3.1415927, the resulting value is 18.334649. The harmonic equivalent of 1833.46 when applied to Gallery length would ensure that the wave-forms set up in the cavity were finely tuned to light frequencies.

A search of my physics books revealed that 1836 was the closest approximation the scientists have calculated to the mass / Page 96 (Diagram 15 omitted) Page 97 / ratio of the positive hydrogen ion, i.e. the proton, to the electron..."




Adi-Kent Thomas Jeffrey 1977


Page 90

"One of the most repeated suggestions heard from sci-entists puzzling over the parallel Universe idea isthat it is another dimension of time.

Can there be a time other than that which we know and govern our lives by?..."

Page 91

"The old Newtonian concept of a Universe of three-dimensional space completely independent of time crumbled before Einstein's Theory of Relativity in the early years of this century. Physics now recognizes a Universe in which space -and time are indissolubly linked. None of us on Earth.
are standing still. We are all moving through space and because we are moving, we are growing old at a less rapid rate than if the Earth were standing still. The astronauts, soaring through space, age less- rapidly than we back on Earth. In other words, the faster one travels, the more time slows down. Everything is relative, and so the basis of / Page 92 / Einstein's theory establishes the fact that space and time are interrelated and woven together-in-extricably.
For example, man looks up to the sky today and sees a star exploding and at the same time-realizes the event took place millions. of years ago and that he is seeing something that actually no longer is in existence. What is he witnessing? The present, or the past? What is happening is the awesome truth that an event of a distant past is taking place in the present. The light from the explosion has required a length of time to reach man's vision that has far exceeded the life of the star matter that emitted the light. Space has affected time. One cannot exist without the other. Time is no longer the traditional concept, an independent factor. It is part and parcel of space. The Uni-verse incorporates a space-time continuum. All of which forces us to review our concepts of time as a single along-one-line-type of .procession. If space is everywhere at once, then. likewise, would not time have the same characteristic? Why should we think it can occur only in a sequence pattern?- Is not this traditional concept a construct of man's own. creation-a division of time into successive moments for practical advantages-a pattern he imposes upon time which time itself does not possess? Clocks record our sense-of time, but they do not make it. Clearly, man has made it. He has determined that a certain interval elapses between events and so he measures it by insu-uments and then pronounces that the present event is now and / Page 93 / all that happened before is the past and all that is yet to occur is the future. Such reasoning is be-ginning to appear a very faulty one.
One of the first men to tell us so was the late English scientist, J. W. Dunne, who designed the first British military plane. Today he is much better known for his revolutionary theories on time.- His work, An Experiment with Time, is a classic in its field.
An aeronautical engineer with a great interest in physics arid mathematics, Dunne became ab-sorbed in the 1930's with Einstein's Theory of Rel-ativity. He set about to construct a theory of time that would fit in with Einstein's relativistic con-cepts. What he came up with-is roughly this: if time is a series that flows forward, then there must be another kind of time (in which it flows) that measures it.
From this thesis he went on to suggest that human beings also have several levels. There is the first "Me" who lives and experiences in this life and then another "Me" who is conscious of the first "Me." Such an awareness becomes manifest whenever one has the thought of "Myself." It is the second and detached "I" or "Me" who exists,. not in time as we know it, but in Time Two. This "Me" is able to look backwards and forward in time.
There is the one "Me," asserted Dunne, who goes through life dully and in a sequence of events, and then 'there is the second "Me" which observes. That second "Me" Dunne called "mind." This / Page 94 / mind - and all other men's minds-are small aspects of a single Universal Mind. -
The first "Me," the passive one, Dunne felt, has a narrow choice of what it can look at-merely the events of its mortal life. The second "Me" or mind is not so restricted. It reflects; it judges and dis-criminates.. It is a broad observer. When we are asleep the second mind is particularly free. It oc-cupies itself glancing at the past and future as well as the present.
It is the second and detached ','Me" who exists-in Time Two and is able to look forward and back- wards in Time, unlike the limited first "Me" which is restricted to mortal time, Time One.
To sum it up, Dunne argued for a four-dimensional "serial" Universe in which the inner or sec-ond "Me," particularly in sleep, is free of the waking restrictions of viewing time from moment to moment in a one-directional flow. It slips into another dimension of space-time awareness which allows that person to travel freely through time either backwards or forward.
According to this theory, time is related to awareness. I myself can testify to experiencing such a stepping.out-of-time (as we know it). In! a broader sense, the traditional sense of time ceased for me. Let me explain..." (explanation omitted)




Adi-Kent Thomas Jeffrey 1977

Page 170 (Chapter 12)


"In the foregoing chapters we have done a lot of looking at the possibility of an invisible twin Universe, another whole like us, yet different. Proponents call it various terms such as Invisible Universe, Antimatter Universe, Parallel Universe, Fourth Dimension. . . but they all attribute the same characteristics to this unknown unit. It is unmaterial, therefore unseeable by man's eyes or his instruments. It interacts with or interpenetrates our physical universe from time to time, an action known only by reaction. Phenomena inexplicable in scientific terms are occurring, and in these in- / Page 171 / stances, perhaps, we are being notified of the In-visible System's proximity to us.
There is another analysis that we have not dis-cussed in detail. Is this unseen Universe purely a mental state? Are UFO's, Pyramidology, Atmo-spheric Influences and Geographic Influences, De- materialization, etc., all "psychic" construents?
Is the fourth dimension or the great Invisible Universe not a place-either physical or unphysi-cal-but a state of mind? A product of a mortal man's own beliefs about himself and his Universe? An emanation from a subtle repository of material man's thoughts-a universal and collective store-house of suggestions and traditional concepts from which the world's mass mind unconsciously draws and then objectifies?
A typical product of such processing can be seen in the UFO phenomenon. Examined in the light of this "mass mind" one sees a correlation between what is objectified and what is objectifying.
Jacques Vallee, the noted French astrophysicist and UFO investigator, makes this point time and time again: Man has, since the beginning of his days on earth, witnessed unidentified flying ob-jects. UFO's, Vallee asserts, have been seen throughout history and have consistently provided their own explanation within the framework of each culture. In antiquity they were regarded as gods; in medieval times, as magicians; in the nine-teenth century, as scientific geniuses. And, finally, in our own time, as interplanetary travelers. Objectifications from a mortal mass mind?

Page 172

Author and phenomena-investigator John A. Keel would support this theory as he has stated on numerous occasions that he concludes that all paranormal manifestations stem from a common source, no matter what frame of reference they occur within This common source probably is not a tangible, structured technology but a process of thought power. The phenomenon of UFO's illu-strates that this power is able to manipulate the human mind and reality itself to conform to-and support-the beliefs of the witnesses.
Wasn't Dr. Hynek (see Chapter Two) suggest-ing the same thing when he asked, "[Are UFO's] a product of our own minds without our being aware of it?" John White, an editor with Psychic maga-zine, expounds in an article in the February 1976 issue thoughts that arouse and challenge. He con-tends that "These questions bring us slowly but surely to the realization that only by understand-ing the essence of ourselves-the layers of the psyche, including our higher Self and our highest Self-can we understand the nature and structure of the cosmos." And I would add: "and any and all other universes that may exist."
"Where are these higher planes, these hyper-spaces, these other dimensions?" asks White in his summation paragraph. "All sources agree: they are within us, even though they seem to be outside us in physical space; and at the same time, they are indeed out there. . . ." Can these higher dimensions of thought within us affect the physical space outside us?

Page 173

There is mounting evidence that man has the ability through rising concepts in consciousness to overcome physical space dictates even to the ex-tent of bettering his life on earth and his Physical environment as well. When man cleans up the at-mosphere of his mind, many philosophers feel, the Universe will reflect this purified subjective state in clearer skies, fewer storms, tornadoes, earth- quakes, and extremes of heat and cold, With such exalted reasoning we can come to a beautiful conclusion that would have pleased Mark Twain no end. Man, at long' last, is not only talking about the weather, he finds he can do something about it!
The late Oliver Reiser, a philosopher of note, took that theory one step further. There is a kind of exalted transference of thought going on in the Great Whole, he contended. A Supreme Conscious-ness, that is the highest Mind possible which reaches down to humanity-to which humanity in turn reaches up and thus is established the most infinitely, mentally pure Universe possible. And that would be the only true universe there is. Oth-ers could only hint at its perfection.
And so the probe for a greater understanding of our surroundings goes on. In the Christian Science Monitor of June 18, 1975, Robert C. Cowen wrote a piece concerning man's search for life beyond us. He stated:
"There is more than scientific curiosity behind this effort. Many interested scientists believe that mankind faces such awesome problems that it will either destroy itself or find a creative solution that / Page 174 / will amount to the rebirth of civilization. They think that all technological civilizations probably face such a challenge at about our stage of de-velopment. If other worlds are sending messages, they reason, these civilizations probably have sur-mounted this challenge and we might learn from their experience."
Then Cowen concludes his article with the fol-lowing statement:
"The greatest outreach the human race has yet made, an attempt to contact other worlds, is moti-vated partly by a yearning to transcend the prob-lems of 20th-century earth."
In this ultimate transcendence, then, can it not be agreed, man will take his first step out of this world into that other unphysical Universe, wherever it is?"


The Third Force

Page 321

"The I-Ching, then, may either be regarded as some kind of living entity, or as a kind of ready reckoner which is able to inform the questioner of the exact meaning of the hexagram he has obtained. It is, at aIr events, based upon the notion that there is no such thing as pure chance.
This notion sounds preposterous, but seems to be sup-ported by quantum physics, in which the observer some-how alters the event he is observing. For example, a beam of light shone through a pinhole will cause a small circle of light to appear on a screen (or photographic plate) behind it. If two pinholes are opened side by side, there are two interlinked circles of light, but the portion that overlaps has a number of dark lines, due to the 'interference' of the two beams, which cancel one another out. If the beam is now dimmed, so that only one photon at a time can pass through, you would expect the interference lines to dis-appear when the plate is finally developed, for one photon cannot interfere with another. Yet the interference lines are still there. But if we 'watch' the photons with a photon detector, to find out what is happening at the holes, the interference pattern disappears. . .
Jung seems to be suggesting that, in the same way, our minds affect the patterns of the real world, unconsciously - 'fixing' the results."





Arthur Zajonc 1993

Page 26

The Arab Connection

"Toward the end of the Roman empire the stage was set for further developments in the history of the mind. The closing of the Platonic Academy in A. D. 529 by Justinian was the final death knell of Greek philosophy in the West and the dawn of the Dark Ages. For many centuries, the Academy had been a sanctuary in which the ideas of Plato and his followers flourished. With the rise of Christianity, however, pagan thought was in danger of being eradicated. In A.D. 389, the great library in Alexandria with its half-million scrolls was destroyed by rioting Christians. Under a state that sanctioned the Roman Church, the Platon- ists, who still revered the pagan gods, were persecuted and hounded as dangerous heretics. When Justinian's soldiers swept into the Platonic Academy, the last disciples of Plato had to / Page 27 / flee Athens. The seven great sages of the Academy departed with their precious books bound for Persia where the emperor Khurso I received them graciously at his magnificent summer palace in Jundishapur (near what is today Dizful, Iran).20

In the court of Khurso I, and at the illustrious Academy of Jundishapur, literature, the arts, science, and philosophy flour-ished. The Athenian refugees found here a cosmopolitan at-mosphere of remarkable tolerance. The indigenous religions of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism mingled with eastern religious thought, as well as pagan, Christian, and Jewish influences. Jundishapur was founded as a prisoners' camp following the de-feat of the Roman emperor Valerian in A. D. 260 by Shapur I. By the sixth century it had become the greatest center of learning in the world, boasting an outstanding astronomical observatory, medical school, and the world's first hospital. Jundishapur was known then, and for centuries thereafter, for its physicians and wise counselors. The rise of Islam blunted the impact of Jun-dishapur, but the leaders of Jundishapur's Academy were the nucleus around which the scholarship and learning of Islam formed.

With the rise of Islam in the seventh century, a cultural revolution of unprecedented scope took place on the Arabian peninsula. Following the establishment of the new religion by Mohammed and a system of governance for the vast empire won through holy wars, Islamic scholars became tremendously active in collecting and translating Greek manuscripts. Baghdad, dur- ing the ninth century under the guidance of the scholar and translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq, became a great center of learning, and Arab science and scientists rose quickly in importance. While thinkers in the West forsook the concerns of Hellenism for religious questions, especially the matter of salvation, phi- losophers and physicians of the Islamic Near East, under the influence of Jundishapur, were busy mastering, commenting on, and furthering the knowledge of antiquity"





Arthur Zajonc 1993



Page 28

"The famous philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, and op-tician Ibn al-Haytham figured prominently in these develop-ments.21 In his hands, the history of sight took another significant step away from earlier and more spiritual or psychological views and toward a mathematical and physical theory of vision.

Born in Basra (Iraq) in A.D. 965, Ibn al-Haytham, or Alhazen as he came to be known in the West, became the greatest optical scientist of his age. As a child and young man, Alhazen had attempted to attain knowledge of truth through the Islamic re- ligious sciences of his day. Dismayed by the elusiveness of this goal and the rancor he saw between competing religious sects, he resolved to concern himself with a "doctrine whose matter was sensible and whose form was rational. ,,22 Truth was one, he felt, and throughout the following decades he maintained his initial resolve to avoid the vagaries of the spiritual sciences. Instead, he produced dozens of treatises on mathematical and scientific subjects, the most influential of which was his Optics. One hundred and fifty years after his death in 1040, the Optics was translated into Latin and subsequently became the foun- dation for future optical research. Two aspects of his work will be of special concern to us: his replacement of the Platonic theory of vision with his own quite different theory, and his study of the camera obscura. Both reflect Alhazen's reimagin- ation of light.


THE PROMINENT GREEK accounts of vision had given full weight to the inner activity of the seer. As we have seen, this came to be embodied in their view that a pure fire, essential to sight, resided within the eye and rayed out, sunlike, to illuminate the world. This view was taught in various forms in the West until the twelfth century, for example by the great teacher William of Conches at the cathedral schools of Chartres and Paris. A profound student of Plato, Conches also drew from Galen the


Page 34

The illuminating interior ray or fire had vanished. Yet Des-cartes still holds a two-stage theory of vision. In the first, light (which he conceived of as material and mechanical) is conveyed through the physical organ of sight to a common sensorium in the body. The mechanical stimuli are then, in Descartes's view, "perceived" by a spiritual principle within man. For Descartes the world of extension, of substance-res extensa-reached all the way into the body but could not of itself complete the process of vision. A spiritual principle, the mind or soul-res cogitans- was still required. Like the philosopher in the illustration ob-serving the flickering retinal images from his dark vantage point, the immaterial mind observed the mechanical proddings of the world in the sensorium.

Although the light of the eye that reached out and granted meaning to raw sensation had retreated from the body, it re- mained in Descartes's dualist position as a disembodied spirit, a vestige of the past. Yet even this faint echo of a Greek heritage was destined for at least temporary extinction.

Modern Sense Physiology

We shall, sooner or later, arrive at a mechanical equivalent of consciousness.

Thomas Huxley

The final development in the evolutionary drama of sight (and I must leave much out) occurred in our century. By the mid-1900s, the neurophysiology and psychology of vision had ad-vanced to an extraordinary degree. The detailed knowledge we now possess of brain structure and function, of the neural anat- omy of the eye and visual pathways, is truly staggering. In the flush of excitement that naturally accompanies a century of dis- covery, many feel that they hold now in their hands "the me- Page 35 / chanical equivalent of consciousness," as Thomas Huxley called it.

The Harvard biologist and Nobel laureate David Hubel speaks for many scientists when he states that the brain is a machine "that does tasks in a way that is consonant with the laws of physics, an object that we can ultimately understand in the same way we understand a pnntlng press."30 oreover, contrary to Descartes, we have no need to appeal "to mystical life forces- or to the mind" to account for perception, thought, or emotion. They are purely and simply states of the physical brain.

Hubel rightly recognizes the profound implications of this view for everything we do. Our image of the mind sets the agenda for everything from education to love relationships. According to Hubel, once we understand that mind is an illusion, and that brain is the sole reality, then we can restructure our systems of education and social institutions to serve the brain, not an an-tiquated notion of "spiritual man."

In traditional language, the substitution of a purely material and sensual image for a spiritual reality is idolatry. In his in- sightfullittle book Saving the Appearances, Owen Barfield sug-gests a connection between the biblical injunction against idolatry and the veneration of models so common to modem scientific practice.31 Scientific models certainly have their right-ful place. But when does a model become an idol, that is, when is it taken for something other than a model, becoming "reality"? The model of an atom as a miniature planetary system is helpful only as long as it is not taken literally. Quantum physicists discovered long ago the dangers of idolatry. Neurophysiologists have yet to learn the lesson. For many of them, the brain has become an idol; it has become quintessential man.

The dangers associated with this kind of adulation of the brain are innumerable. The image we have of ourselves is a powerful thing; it shapes our actions, and so also the world we fashion for us and for our children. It is important, therefore, patiently and carefully to distinguish between idol and fact.

Page 36

I am not suggesting a simplistic Romantic return to the past. There is no turning back. Yet are Hubel and the legions of scientists who think like him right to reduce our humanity to brain function? The answer is, quite simply, no. The brain as described by Hubel is a carefully crafted and dazzling image fashioned from the fruits of scientific research, one full of in- sights; but which is ultimately mistaken for something it is not. Is it possible to embrace the results of science without falling into such idolatry? Yes, but this, perhaps more than any other, is the challenge we confront in our times. Our success or failure in fashioning a nonidolatrous science will determine much for our future.

Rekindling the Fire of the Eye

The movements we have traced are like a contrapuntal harmony where one melody sounds against the other. As the light of the eye dims, that of the world brightens. As the beacon of the eye gradually retreats, the power of sunlight projects itself deeper and deeper into the human being until finally the ethereal em- anations of Plato, and even the Cartesian spectator, vanish from the Western scientific sense of self. Yet some data and scientific developments indicate the possibility of a "postmodern" view of self and vision that has room in it for the light of the eye. In them, the interior ray may once again find a place, even if under another guise.

We have learned that our consciousness is not immutable. Our habits of thought become perceptions, and while powerful and pervasive, these are not universal or "true." We should learn to take responsibility for them. Do they accord with our deepest intentions and the good of our society and planet? Or do we need to "reimagine" ourselves and our world? In this way Matthew's remarks make real sense: "If thine eye be evil, thy / Page 37 / whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!" Our light, a light of meaning, fashions a world, forms it from the light of day. If our light be darkness-be evil-then we bring darkness and evil into our whole body, personal and social. If it be light- be good-then health flows into us, and into the world.

Plato's light of the eye was a light of interpretation, of "in-tentionality," as modem phenomenologists would say; a light that grants meaning. Cognition entails two actions: the world presents itself, but we must "re-present" it. We bring ourseJves, with all our faculties and limitations, to the world's presentation in order to give form, fig1:1re, and meaning to that content. The beautiful and productive images we craft on the basis of expe- rience are images only-fruits of the imagination. They are no less true for being so. If in our enthusiasm we forget this, then images become idols demanding propitiation at their high altars. Nor should these reflections become grounds for abandoning the path of knowledge, because it is a philosophy of growth and development. The organs of insight we bring are neither fixed nor limited, but malleable and expansive. Thus the importance of integrating the insights into light gained by artistic and spir-itual disciplines as well as scientific ones.

"Plato's light of the eye was a light of interpretation,"

Plato's light of the I was a light of interpretation,

 Plato's light of the 9 was a light of interpretation,



Light Divided: Divine Light and Optical Science

Page 38

"Our original question-what is the nature of light?-has been answered differently by different peoples. To the Egyptians it asked after man's relationship to the god Ra. They sought first a moral or spiritual answer, not a mechanistic one. By contrast, we search to explain the nature of light by tracing light rays through intricate optical systems. We seek light's mathematical and physical lawfulness. The sequence of words-what is light?-does not have a unique meaning. The Egyptian answer is utterly different from that of quantum optics, but are they necessarily at odds? Or does the Egyptian yearn to know a different part of light's expansive being?

We should be open to the possibility that the essential ques- tions posed about nature in past or future ages may be quite different from those posed by us today. As C. S. Lewis wrote in his lovely book The Discarded Image, it is not that our present- day understanding is unsubstantiated, but we should realize that "nature gives most of her evidence in answer to the questions we ask her.". The questions we ask, as well as the answers we are willing to accept, reflect our temper of mind. The images of one age may be discarded by another less because of new discoveries than because of new priorities and new questions, all of which reflect a changing psyche.

Page 39

By remaining open to conflicting proposals regarding the na- ture of light, we allow the wide-ranging drama of the past its place, and so read the full biography of light rather than only the fragment we have written ourselves. We can also wonder afresh at our present understandings of light and see the future as being still undeterl{lined. As we approach the ancients' un- derstanding of light, we should leave our own hard-won, con-temporary images at the threshold to see as others have seen.



The Lost Eye


am the one

who openeth his eyes, and there is light; When his eyes close, darkness falleth.


speaking; from the

Turin papyrus, 1300 B.C."

Two eyes looked down on the civilization of the Nile, the "two eyes of Horus," the sun and moon. No more significant symbol existed in ancient Egypt than the eye of the sun-god Ra. His eye-the sun-was creative, his vision was life itself. It was said that mankind arose from the tears of his eye. in Egyptian, the very words for tears and men sounded similar.


The nature of light was clear to the Egyptians. As the priest- scribe wrote in the above fragment 3,300 years ago, when Ra "openeth his eyes. . . there is light; When his eyes close, dark- ness falleth." The gaze of Ra was the light of day. For men and women of that civilization, to stand within daylight was to stand in the sight of their sun-god. The power of vision to illuminate the world was universalized, projected onto the grandest scale, becoming the brightness of day. The gaze of God was light. Light was God seeing."




We are reminded of the Greeks, who felt the force of their vision, the "light" of their own eye, and developed a theory of / Page 40 / vision based, in part, on that experience. From the mythology of the Egyptian world with its multitude of stories about the eyes of Horus or Ra, we come to realize that prior to the individualized light of Greek visual theory, sunlight itself was felt to be an emanation of an eye, that of the sun-god Ra. In neither case was light a substance or thing, but rather was felt to be the power of seeing. To see was to illumine. For Empedocles, the human eye was like a lantern lit at the hearth of creation. When open, it rayed forth into the world and man saw. For the Egyptian priest, the sun itself was an eye, which, when open, brought the day and, when closed, the night. The kinship between the eye and the sun was felt deeply for many centuries, from ancient Egypt to the medieval mystics. In Persian and Greek mythology the identical image reappears-the sun and moon are the eyes of gods placed into the heavens.2

The earliest answer given to our question-what is the nature of light?-must be: it is the sight of God. Mankind, formed from the tears of Ra or by means of his sight alone, shares somewhat in his nature, like debased gods.3 By the time of the Greek philosophers, we, like the gods, illuminate the world with our sight. The sight of Ra lights up the cosmos; the sight of man lights up our personal world.

Page 41

The change from universal illumination and the eye of god to the human is beautifully told in the Egyptian story of the "lost eye" of Horus or Ra that appears in many variations within Egyptian mythology." It seems that the Eye of the supreme god of Egypt wandered away from its appointed course as the Sun, becoming lost in the watery depths of this world and living as a lioness in the eastern mountains of the sunrise. Ra sent Shu and Tefnut in search of it, but by the time the Eye was found and returned to the face of Ra, another eye had been fashioned to take its place. The original Eye was outraged, but the god Thoth pacified and healed it. Ra went still further and made a place for it within the enclosed serpent form of the uraeus, and placed it in the middle of his forehead "where it could rule the whole world." In the depiction of the pharaohs, this same' em-blem rested on their heads. The Eye of Ra, the Sun, was no longer free to rove unfettered, but was now forever encompassed by the asp-serpent. Delimited and individualized by the power of the serpent, it became the ruler of this world. The all-mighty pharaoh, therefore, is depicted as crowned with the uraeus. The eye of Ra becomes the eye of man; the light of god the light of man.

Light was, and has remained, an aspect of God. Imaged in countless ways as sight or angel or one of a thousand other things, it has been inseparable from man's groping to represent the spirit. From Egypt we move to ancient Persia, where light, darkness, and the divine unite to form a glorious religious uni-verse."








Arthur Zajonc 1993


Light in a Dark World

Legend has it that at the age of thirty, Zoroaster, whose life had been spent in careful attention to the path of righteousness, stood in the river Daiti in order to draw water for ritual libations. / Page 42 /


Page 209

"As the sun sets, its light passes through more and more of the atmosphere en route to the eye. Thus, in its journey from sun to us, light passes through the darkening or "turbid" medium of air, as Goethe called it. In the process, all the warm colors arise. This is the archetypal relationship between light and dark- ness that yields red, orange, and yellow-light through dark- ness. The stronger the darkening, the redder the color.

The blue vault of the daytime sky offers us the archetypal instance of the other pole of color. Here light does not pass through darkness, but just the opposite-darkness passes / Page 210 / through light. Looking up, we gaze into the dark depths of space, but once again the atmosphere intervenes. Now, however, it plays a different role. In this case, the air catches the light. We look, therefore, through the light-filled medium of the atmo-sphere into the darkness. Or, if we follow Goethe and conceive of darkness as equally, if oppositely, active to light, darkness shines through the light-filled air, and the cool colors arise.

Once you learn to see the law of color in the colors of the heavens, you will see examples of it everywhere, from the blue haze over a smoky pool table, to the use of "atmospheric per-spective" by a painter (that which is distant appears blue be-cause of the intervening turbidity of air). Prismatic colors, as in the boundary colors discussed above, are more complex but can also be understood in this way. In all cases, light and darkness meet in a turbid medium to create color.

The account of color production given by the most recent theories of physics offers a similar, if far more exact and math- ematical account. In them, colors arise through the "scattering" of light. The turbid medium provides innumerable scattering centers, be they molecules in air or a glass prism. From them light is scattered according to strictly mathematical laws, and in the process colors are produced. Even the rainbow, set be- tween Alexander's dark band and a luminous interior region, can be understood in an analogous way. Where light meets darkness, colors flash into existence. Colors are, therefore, the offspring of the greatest polarity our universe can offer. In the mythic language of Zarathustra, colors are a reflection of the mighty battle relentlessly waged between the god of light, Ahura Mazda, and the dark hosts of Ahriman. In Goethe's lan-guage, "Colors are the deeds and sufferings of light," the deeds and suffe.rings of light with darkness.24

If we follow Goethe's pathway into color, we are not led to models of light in terms of waves or particles, but to a perception of those relationships between light and darkness that give rise / Page 211 / to color. Seen aright, the phenomena of the blue sky and sunset are the theory, and true to its Greek root, theoria, theory really is a "beholding." In Goethe's words, "The highest thing would be to comprehend that everything factual is already theory. The blue of the heavens reveals to us the fundamental law of chro- matics. One should only not see anything further behind the phenomena: they themselves are the theory.25

Like the geologist reading rocks, or Newton seeing the apple fall, or Archimedes crying "Eureka!" we can grow to perceive the laws of chromatics in the blue of the heavens and the first light of dawn. Through studying the action of light in darkness, and darkness in light, we come to sense the "deeds and suf- fering" that are color. Once we have kindled an Empedoclean light within, fashioned the requisite organs of insight, the ar- chetypal phenomena appear, and in them we see an idea.

PHILOSOPHY SINCE PLATO has divided knowing into two insular realms: ideas and experience. Naively, but tenaciously, Goethe ceaselessly sought a way to experience ideas, to bridge the chasm others thought unbridgeable. The union of idea and ex- perience may seem impossible, but as Goethe says, "nothing forbids us from seeking a loving approach to that which lies beyond our reach.26

Goethe's method gradually converts facts to theory, seen real-ity to ideal reality, and is Goethe's response to philosophical dualism. One cannot take truth by force, but perhaps indirectly, through phenomena, sign, and symbol we may approach her. "The True, which is identical with the divine, does not allow itself to be recognized by us directly. Rather we discern it only in reflection, in instance, symbol, in particular and kindred appearances. We become aware of it as incomprehensible life and yet cannot renounce the wish to comprehend it."

Goethe's method requires a reciprocal enhancement of both / Page 212 / natural phenomena and the observing mind. It all begins with wonder, as Plato rightly said, but then passes on to interest and so to active inquiry. In the process, new organs of perception are fashioned that are suited to seeing the essential aspects of the phenomena before us. As we enhance our cognitive capac- ities we simultaneously enhance the world we see until, ulti-mately, we behold the ideal within the real as archetypal phenomenon. To them one rises, as Goethe described the pro-cess, and from them one can descend in order to understand specific phenomena. They are the ultimate experience, and the limit beyond which one cannot legitimately go. Most of us, however, do not recognize this and so go on, putting, for ex-ample, a model or idol in place of the archetype. "The sight of an archetypal phenomenon is generally not enough for people; they think they must go still further; and are thus like children who after peeping into a mirror turn it round directly to see what is on the other side.Page 27"


"GOETHE'S SENSE OF scientific understanding is grounded in in-sight, not model building, and so is true to the heart of both science and art.

Every scientific discovery from Galileo to Einstein can trace its origin to the eureka experience in which a phenomenon becomes transparent to the ideal, and an idea is seen. From this exhilarating moment, the scientist works to translate his or her insight into words and symbols. In the process, the eureka experience is often lost while its technical power is retained. Goethe was more interested in the former, seeking constantly for means that would permit everyone to have their own epiphany into nature's ways, to see ideas. -

GOETHE PERFORMED FOR philosophy a common piece of parlor magic. The magician stands with two disconnected solid metal / Page 213 / rings before the audience, one in his left hand, the other in his right. He taps them together to prove the impossibility of their union. Then, before their very eyes, he clangs the two and they are linked. Each ring passes through the middle of the other. In an instant the topology has changed utterly. Now all such distinctions as inside-outside simply lose their meaning. Like the two rings, Goethe considered the realms of thinking and perceiving as interpenetrating. Perceiving is at once outside and at the center of thinking, and thinking likewise passes through the heart of seeing, and surrounds it.

Two worlds, kept so long apart, are united in our perception of archetypal phenomena. To see them we must fashion new organs of cognition, for they cannot be gained by logic alone. Once known, they represent the highest we can hope to attain. To the artist, one final and all-significant aspect of this method is that in perceiving the archetypal phenomenon, one does not denude or degrade nature but exalt her. The sunset is still gloriously red, not reduced to differential absorption and scat- tering. The perception of a scientific idea does not require the death of the beautiful.

The last chapter of Goethe's Theory of Color undertakes a preliminary treatment of the "sensory-moral" effects of color. In these pages, Goethe describes his inner response to color, connecting it back to earlier sections of the book. The eye's tendency to complete the color circle is related to the principles of color harmony; the polarity of warm and cool colors takes on new me~ning in light of his prism experiments. The inner aspects are as much a part of the experience of color as the redness of red. The archetypal phenomena include the moral with the sen-sual.

Remember Goethe's motivating question framed on a hillside outside Rome regarding the use of color by artists. Remember, too, the therapeutic use of color at Sunfield Children's Home. Textbook physics cannot answer the real questions of Goethe or Wilson. Such answers come only by working with the phenomena / Page 214 / themselves, hecause then we fashion organs for a science in which the beautiful as well as the useful, the human as well as the physical, can be experienced. Thus, Goethe performed a second piece of conjuring. As Gaston Bachelard once wrote, and as Goethe amply demonstrated, "The phenomena of the world, as soon as they acquire a little consistency and unity, turn into the human truths."28

More Light!

Throughout his life Goethe was a lover of nature and especially of light. When he was young, that love was passionate; when he was old, it became quiet but intense. As a child, Goethe revered God through his works, his creation of minerals, plants, animals, and heavens. Above all these ranked the sun. To this god, the child Goethe once constructed an altar after the fashion of Old Testament prophets. On his father's ornate, red, four- sided music stand he arranged his most precious specimens: crystals, ores, shells, and plants. Yet something especially fine was needed for the summit-a flame with gently rising smoke, perhaps. In a small porcelain saucer the young priest placed a tablet of incense, completing the altar. Lighting the tablet was all that remained in order to consummate the ceremony.

The secret service occurred at dawn with only Goethe in attendance. As a brilliant sun rose above the apartments to the east, Goethe used a magnifying glass to focus the sunlight onto the incense. Like a Zoroastrian priest, the child connected the sacred fire atop his altar to the sun. The liturgy was complete. Through the power of the sun, and with a little technical assis-tance from the lens, the mystery was enacted. Johann was con-tent.

Goethe lived long enough to see his color science ignored or rejected by scientific contemporaries in whom mechanical con- / Page 215 / ceptions of light were unalterably rooted. They preferred a math-ematical language to that of color experience, physical models to archetypal phenomena. Yet this greatest of Germany's many geniuses never swerved from his own judgment concerning the high value of what he had accomplished.

The light of the ferryman's lamp in Goethe's fairy tale The Lily and the Green Snake turned all it touched to gold. Similarly, colors are the precious ripples that sparkle in light's wake. For decades Goethe studied them, saying at his life's end, "I have known light in its purity and truth, and I consider it my duty to strive after It."29

In his final conflict with death, light was still Goethe's last request. A half hour before his passing, Goethe commanded that the window shutters be opened so that more light might stream into the room where he lay. His earthly striving at an end, how fitting that Goethe's last words are said to have been: "More light!"30 Ruskin was right, those who love color are pure. Surely to them, if to anyone, will be granted nature's open secret-light."

Page 211

"One cannot take truth by force, but perhaps indirectly, through phenomena, sign, and symbol we may approach her. "The True, which is identical with the divine, does not allow itself to be recognized by us directly. Rather we discern it only in reflection, in instance, symbol, in particular and kindred appearances."


Page 321

Least Light: A Contemporary View

The Place of Light


"Hast thou perceived the breadth of the Earth? declare if thou knowest it all. Where is the way where light dwelleth? and as for darkness, where is the place thereof?"

Book of Job


In his story of world creation, before anything else could happen, Hesiod had first to bring forth a brooding space filled with possibility, called Chaos. In Greek, its root meaning was "gap." Here, in the place provided by Chaos, rose the "wide-bosomed Earth," as Hesiod called it, "a sure, eternal dwelling-place for all the deathless gods who rule Olympus's snowy peaks.,,18 The place of earth was created before the earth itself.

Everything must have location, a place where it is. Aristotle declared that "A natural scientist must inform himself not only on the infinite, but also on place. ,,19 What then is the place of light? One would suppose that with the photon concept of light, a straightforward response would be forthcoming; but quantum theory and experiment again conspire to make the place of light completely elusive.


IN AN IMPORTANT paper of 1949, Eugene Wigner and T. D. Newton, then at Princeton, looked for the place of elementary quantum particles: electrons, protons, mesons, and photons.20 They were interested in "localized states," that is to say, they sought a clear way to define position for particles within the formalism of quantum mechanics. Everything began well enough. Elementary particles that possess mass, like the elec- tron and neutron, presented no special problems. However, when they turned their attention to light, a sudden hitch ap- peared. They commented that light was different; they could find no mathe~atical object within quantum theory that properly



Page 327


" Least Light: A Contemporary View

could something so simple arise from such a complex analysis? Casimir was suspicious. Bohr agreed and pointed Casimir in a totally unexpected direction. Casimir's calculation had exam- ined the detailed mechanisms by which atomic motions in the metal plates might induce unexpected electromagnetic fields and

thus attract a nearby plate.25 He had used the still relatively'

new quantum theory of Schrodinger and the relativity of Einstein, but Bohr urged Casimir to turn his attention away from the plates and to the empty space around them. It would have been sense- less advice twenty-five years earlier, but in the intervening de- cades a full quantum theory of light (quantum electrodynamics) had been developed, and one of its features was a new under- standing of the vacuum, of emptiness.

Where before the vacuum had been understood as pure emp- tiness-no matter, no light, no heat-now there was a residual hidden energy. Take away everything, cool to absolute zero in temperature, and still the vacuum remains, and it is shimmering with a special kind of light. Called the "zero-point energy of the vacuum," it seems an essential part of quantum-field theory. Bohr suggested that Casimir look to it, to the vacuum, for the force between two metal plates. Casimir followed Bohr's pre- scient advice and in a two-page--derivation, he arrived by an elegant path at what had caused him so much trouble before.26 Since Casimir's calculation, experiments have shown the force to occur with exactly the form he predicted.

Without launching into the details of quantum electrody-namics (or QED), I can still draw attention to a few features of the calculation that are suggestive of a new way of understanding emptiness. According to QED, after one has removed all matter and all light from space, an infinite energy still remains. Since there is no way to extract this energy out of the vacuum, theorists dismissed it as a curious artifact of the theory, of little real significance, at least until Casimir made his calculation. By inserting two parallel conducting plates into the vacuum, Casi- / Page 328 /










Before the Law
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
"Before the Law" is a parable in the novel The Trial (German Der Prozeß), by Franz Kafka. "Before the Law" was published in Kafka's lifetime, while The Trial was not published until after Kafka's death.
Contents [hide]
1 Plot summary
1.1 "Before the Law"
1.2 In The Trial
2 Significance
3 External links
[edit] Plot summary
[edit] "Before the Law"
A man from the country seeks the law and wishes to gain entry to the law through a doorway. The doorkeeper tells the man that he cannot go through at the present time. The man asks if he can ever go through, and the doorkeeper says that is possible. The man waits by the door for years, bribing the doorkeeper with everything he has. The doorkeeper accepts the bribes, but tells the man that he accepts them "so that you do not think you have failed to do anything." The man waits at the door until he is about to die. Right before his death, he asks the doorkeeper why even though everyone seeks the law, no one else has come in all the years. The doorkeeper answers "Here no one else can gain entry, since this entrance was assigned only to you. I'm going now to close it."
In some English translations of the original German text, the word "Law" is capitalized. It is important to keep in mind, however, that this is the prerogative of the translator who might wish to focus attention on the myriad connotations of the word beyond its simple juridical meaning; for example, in religious (law as moral or God's law) or psychoanalytic (Freud's "Law of the Father") contexts. In the original German, the capitalization of the word Gesetz ("Law") reflects nothing more than a standard adherence to the rules of spelling, which require that all nouns be capitalized, and has no wider significance.
[edit] In The Trial
Josef K has to show an important client from Italy around a cathedral. The client doesn't show up, but just as K is leaving the cathedral, the priest calls out K's name, although K has never known the priest. The priest reveals that he is a court employee, and he tells K the story, prefacing it by saying it is from "the introductory texts to the Law," never referring to it by its published title. The priest and K then discuss interpretations of the story before K leaves the cathedral.
[edit] Significance
The section is a lucid example of absurdity in Kafka's works. It also clearly demonstrates the concept of existentialism, as the man from the country can only enter the gate using his own, individual path. The fable is referenced and reworked in the penultimate chapter of J.M. Coetzee's novel Elizabeth Costello. Jacques Derrida's essay also titled "Before the Law" examines the meta-fictional aspects within the structure and content of Kafka's fable (For instance the situation of the title before the body of the text and also within the first line of the text itself). Derrida's essay incorporates Immanuel Kant's notion of the categorical imperative as well as Freudian psychoanalysis in its reading of Kafka's fable.






Graham Hancock


Page 273

"The precessional numbers highlighted by Sellers in the Osiris myth are 360, 72, 30 and 12."

"These he joined to the 360 days of which the year then consisted (emphasis added)."

"Elsewhere the myth informs us that the 360 - day year consists of "12 months of 30 days each".

And in general,as Sellers observes , "phrases are used which prompt simple mental calculations and an attention to numbers ".

"Elsewhere the myth informs us that the 360-day year consists of '12 months of 30 days each'.

Thus far we have been provided with three of Seller's precessional: 360, 12 and 30. The fourth number,which occurs later in the text, is by far the most important. As we saw in Chapter Nine, the evil deity known as Set led a group of conspirators in a plot to kill Osiris. The number of these conspirators was 72."




James Burke


" Man has lived in close contact with change since he first appeared on Earth. During everyone of the


million minutes of his life,"




Michael D. Bennett


A key to the pattern of history

Page 4

"And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them '" Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness."

Luke ch. 22 w. 47 & 52-53


Each individual major event in the life of Jesus occurred at a perfect particular moment in time. However, taken together these different moments, spread over more than thirty-three years of the lifetime of Jesus, together represent the only "acceptable" period, forming the one window of opportunity in time (a dispensation) when the Father's purpose for man could be fulfilled by the Son. So the Bible speaks not of "a due time" but of "the fulness of the time" - it is one time, and only one time. Similarly, the prophet speaks not of "an acceptable day" but of "the acceptable year of the Lord" - it is one year, and one year in particular when this preaching must begin - "This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears"!

The lifetime of Jesus must therefore be viewed as a special period, marked out in time, as a remarkable dispensation or day of opportunity. This was how Jesus presented it:

"Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was giad."

JotVt ch. 8 v. 56

"I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world."

John ch. 9 w. 4-5

It is important to understand the magnitude both of the moment and of the period, and the utter importance of Jesus Christ's combining perfect timing and obedience. Everything in heaven and on earth depended on Him:

"Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father ... Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands John ch. 13 w. 1 & 3

Page 5

"That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:"

Ephesians ch. 1 v. 10


It has been well established by students of Bible Prophecy that a time is a definite period lasting 360 days or years. Briefly, the following verse, which lists time periods in order of increasing duration, shows that a time is longer than a month but shorter than a year:

"Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years."

Galatians ch. 4 Y. 10

Moreover, a comparison of scriptures shows that "a thousand two hundred and threescore days" (1260 days - Revelation ch.12 v.6) is equivalent to "a time, and times, and half a time" (3.5 times - Revelation ch.12 v.14). As 1260 days = 3.5 times, then a time = 1260/3.5 = 360 days (which is longer than a month, but slightly shorter than a solar tropical year (almost 365.25 days).

A time is 360 days precisely. Interestingly it is also the closest number of whole days to the average (359.80464 days) of the present durations of the two years still widely used. These are: (i) the lunar year (comprising 12 lunar months each of 29.53059 days) lasting 354.36708 days, still used by the Moslem world~ and, (ii) the solar tropical year, lasting 365.24219 days, used by most of the world. It should be made clear that all historical dates and intervals given below refer to the solar tropical years, to which our present Gregorian calendar closely approximates, with a discrepancy amounting to only about two days in 7,000 years. [Various authors have suggested that once, perhaps before Noah's flood, the durations of the lunar and solar years were identical at 360 days, so that the time is the original duration of the year of this creation. As this interesting idea is unproven, it must be treated with caution.] What is clear is that: (I) God is dealing in periods of "time(s)" lasting 360 days~ and, (2) often these periods are very protracted owing to use of the day for a year scale, so that "a time" of 360 days translates into a great "time" of360 years (i.e. 360 solar tropical years)!

Page 9

7. ONE "TIME" - ~us CHRISf AND ALEXANDER 'DIE GREAT Alexander the Great was a colossus of history. He is still

remembered today in song and conversation, where his name and memory are still synonymous with human military power and empire building.

The Greek empire which sprang into prominence is mentioned in prophecy as the third (brass) empire after Babylon (Daniel ch. 2 v. 39. More importantly here, Alexander the Great was himself mentioned so clearly that modernists use this to argue that Daniel's prophecy was written after, rather than before these events.

"The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king [Alexander the Gteat J."

Daniel ch. 8 w. 20-21

Daniel's prophecy predicted that Alexander would utterly defeat the Persians and that his empire would rapidly replace theirs and achieve world domination. Daniel also foretold that Alexander would be broken at the pinnacle of his power, and his empire split into four parts. All of this carne to pass.

Alexander was born in 356 B.C. and inherited the throne of Macedonia from his father Philip who was murdered in 336 B.C. From the start Alexander's intention was to conquer Medo-Persia. In two years he trained an army, and in 334 B.C. he led it across the Hellespont into Asia Minor (modern Turkey) towards Persia routing the Persian army as he advanced. In the following year 333 B.C., Darius III, king of Persia, counter-attacked with a great army, but he was routed at the battle of Issus (near the north east angle of the Mediterranean). In 332 B.C. Alexander turned south, but was held up for seven months besieging Tyre before pushing on further south through Palestine, and entering Egypt unopposed. According to the Jewish historian Josephus, Alexander spared Jerusalem from attack after he had seen a vision of the Jewish High Priest outside the city. He accepted a surrender of Jerusalem by the High Priest and was shown the prophecies of Daniel concerning the king of Grecia (i.e. himself).

In 331 B.C. Alexander returned through Palestine and Syria and marched east against Persia, defeating Darius at the great

Page 10

battle of Gaugamela near Nineveh on the Tigris in September of that year. Darius fled to Media, and Alexander marched on to Persia taking the treasures from the royal palaces at Susa and Persepolis. In 330 B.C. he turned north to Ecbatana capital of Media catching and killing Darius south of the Caspian Sea. Alexander continued his victorious campaign, finally emerging into India in 326 B.C. where he marched down the Indus to the sea, and returned to Persia by way of the coast. Quite suddenly, in 323 B.C. (June 10th) he was taken ill and died in Babylon aged either thirty-two or thirty three.

The comparisons between Alexander and Jesus are striking:

(1) Alexander is a personified example of the greatest power that this world can produce, while Jesus is both the personified example of the greatest power which comes from heaven, and the greatest man ("He shall be great "Luke ch. 1 v. 32).

(2) Alexander led a great army in a great conquest which overthrew one world empire while founding a new one which survives, in modified form, to the present day. Jesus too leads a great army, but he single-handedly overthrew Satan's empire and founded a new body, the Church, which survive~ and grows ever stronger to the present day.

(3) Alexander died and was defeated by death in Babylon aged 32 or 33. Jesus lay down his life and defeated death and rose again in Jerusalem, aged 33.

(4) Perhaps the greatest comparison here is that Alexander the Greek conquered Palestine and spared Jerusalem accepting its surrender by the High Priest in the year 332/31 B.C. (Nisan-Nisan). Jesus came to Jerusalem and was rejected by the High Priest, and crucified by the Romans at Passover of A.D. 30. The scripture says that "... in due time Christ died for the ungodly" (Romans ch. 5 v. 6). It seems highly significant that it was 360 years (one time) which had elapsed between Alexander the Great's memorable conquest of Jerusalem in 332/31 B.C., and Jesus Christ's greater victory at Jerusalem, over death, in A.D. 30 (Figure 2)!

Greeks are mentioned specifically only once in the gospels, and it seems highly significant that Greeks who had come to

Page 11

Jerusalem are specifically mentioned as wishing to see Jesus immediately prior to the time of His victorious death.

" And there were certain Greeks among them that came up to worship at the feast: The same came therefore to Philip [Alexander's father's name) ... saying. Sir, we would see Jesus. ... And Jesus answered them, saying, The bour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified... Now is tbe judgment of tbis world: now sball tbe prince of tbis world be cast out. "

John ch. 12 vv. 20-23 & 31

Alexander the Great conquers Jesus Christ is crucified

Palestine and accepts the and conquers death at His surrender of Jerusalem Resurrection at Jerusalem

L one "time" ~I r 360 years 1

332/31 B.C. A.D. 30

Alexander the Greek son Greeks visiting Jerusalem

of Philip of Macedon ask Philip "Sir, we would "visits Jerusalem" see Jesus"

Figure 2. Christ's great victory over death at Jerusalem was one

"time" (360 years - to the nearest whole year) after

Alexander the Great's conquest of Palestine and acceptance of the surrender of Jerusalem ("... in due time Christ died for the ungodly").


The united kingdom of Judah and Israel governed by David and Solomon, split in 930 B.C. Rehoboam ruled the small southern kingdom of Judah, comprising the tribal lands of Judah and Benjamin, with Jerusalem as its capital city. To the north the larger kingdom of Israel, comprising the tribal lands of ten Israelite tribes, was ruled by Jeroboam who chose Samaria as his capital city.

The history of the northern kingdom of Israel was mainly a sad tale of idolatry and rebellion under successive kings "who did evil in the sight of the LORD". Consequently this part of God's kingdom came under the ultimate "seven times" punishment


The end of the northern kingdom of Israel could not have been more complete. Moreover, it was brought about by the direct activity of the king of the most dominant world power of the time

- Assyria.

These most significant events in the history of God's kingdom occurred an exact number of "times" before two major events early in the life of the Lord Jesus Christ (Figure 3). Thus, the start of the siege of Israel's capital in 724/23 B.C. was two complete "times" of years before the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ (Israel's rightful king) in 4/3 B.C. (Figure 3). Moreover, the fall of Samaria, and the ending of the northern kingdom, and the deportation of Israel to foreign captivity in Assyria in 722/21 B.C. was two complete "times" before the holy family fled from Israel to Egypt to avoid Herod's lethal persecution in 2/1 B.C. (Figure 3). " when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law" (Galatians ch.4 v.4).

9. THREE "TIMES" - REJECI1ON OF GOD AS KING OF ISRAEL It is clear that God always intended that He Himself would be

Israel's king, so that the nation would be a theocracy.

"... The LORD came from Sinai ... and he came with ten thousands of saints

... Yea, he loved the people; ... And he was king in Jeshurun, when

the heads of the people and the tribes of Israel were gathered together." Deuteronomy ch. 33 w. 2,3 & 5

" And Gideon said unto them, I will not rule over you, neither shall my

son rule over you: the LORD shall rule over you"

Judges ch. 8 v. 23

"I am the LORD, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King" "

Isaiah ch. 43 v. 15

Thus, when the people later asked for an earthly king, God told Samuel that they were not rejecting him, but rejecting God Himself as their ruler.

"And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them. "

I Samuel ch. 8 v. 7

Page 14

Saul was the first earthly king of Israel, as King of

ite monarchy was founded in his first

r I. c. Saul was the finest specimen of a

d shoulders above other men in Israel. .

'as flawed, and he was soon rejected by

,1051/50 rant di~obedience of God's i.nstructi°n.s Foundation 0

:. Saul s dynasty was short-lived, but It first shortlive(

.one of David" an everlasting dynasty monarchy unl nteed by God's oath and covenant.

Figure 4. Th lcingdom shall be established for ever before of ablished for ever." nul

II Samuel ch. 7 Y. 16 an< , holiness that I will not lie unto David. His uru md his throne as the sun before me."

Psalm 89w. 35-36

David shall never want a man to sit upon the However 1.tI , . , Jeremiah ch. 33 Y. 17 rejection of t

:ar of theocracy represented by Samuel "

Btth thi.

thaII.du eyCl ~. It was at s time t srae rejecte saith unto tl ~quently, Samuel anointed Saul as king We have no

'. at the start of his forty year reign.

le last time that Israelites would reject Sigru f the rejection

would ask for a human king, and so ~n

I (~051 B.C.) \J

both to allow a human monarchy m kIng of Israe. n Himself a man, as the rightful heir to it was a com :el Gabriel, speaking to Mary, said of first unendu

1051/50 B.C.

~l be called the Son of the Highest: and the guaranteed t mm the throne of his father David: And he indeed endu of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there These two f(

Luke ch. 1 w. 32-33. God were se dispensation one all thing~





Graham Hancock


Page 273

"The precessional numbers highlighted by Sellers in the Osiris myth are 360, 72, 30 and 12."

"These he joined to the 360 days of which the year then consisted (emphasis added)."

"Elsewhere the myth informs us that the 360 - day year consists of "12 months of 30 days each".

And in general,as Sellers observes , "phrases are used which prompt simple mental calculations and an attention to numbers ".

"Elsewhere the myth informs us that the 360-day year consists of '12 months of 30 days each'.

Thus far we have been provided with three of Seller's precessional: 360, 12 and 30. The fourth number,which occurs later in the text, is by far the most important. As we saw in Chapter Nine, the evil deity known as Set led a group of conspirators in a plot to kill Osiris. The number of these conspirators was 72."


Page 16


There was no Tabernacle before the Exodus, nor indeed could there be. The Tabernacle was a symbol of God's presence at the centre of His people's national life. Israel did not become a nation until the year of the Exodus when God gave them the legal constitution for the kingdom of God on earth at Sinai. As there could be no established "church" without a free self-governing nation, so there could be no Tabernacle before the Exodus and the giving of the law.

The Tabernacle was a movable tent, unlike the Temple which was built of great stones. There was no Temple before the reign of Solomon, nor indeed could there be. First, in order to be a true symbol, no "permanent" Temple could be raised up until three great millennial days (3,000 years) from a destructive fall. Second, no Temple could be erected before there was a "son of David", who was also a "prince of peace". The Temple symbolized Jesus Christ and his royal priesthood. As there was no enduring monarchy in Israel before David's, no reigning son of David [and no reign of peace] until Solomon, then clearly the essential preconditions needed for the Temple symbol to fit Jesus were not met until the eleventh year of king Solomon's reign when the newly completed Temple was dedicated by the king and nation exactly 3,000 years (3 "days") after the start of the generations of Adam.

The Tabernacle, the Temple, and Jesus Christ are closely linked. They symbolized Him, and He was their perfect fulfilment. It follows then, that if His life is measured out in "times", so will theirs be.

i) The Temple of a "time"

It needs to be more widely noticed that Solomon's Temple was indeed recognised by God for exactly one great time. Construction began in the fourth year of Solomon and ended after seven years in his eleventh year.

Page 17

Figure 5. The foundation and dedication of the first Temple preceded landmarks in its destruction by exactly 360 years (a "time" of years) of ordained activity before Nebuchadnezzar's first and final removals of the original vessels made by Solomon.

"In the fourth year was the foundation of the house of the LORD laid,

in the month Zif: And in the eleventh year, in the month BuI. which is the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according to all the fashion of it. So was he seven years in building it."

I Ki1gsm. 6w. 37-38

Solomon succeeded his father in 970 B.C., but all of that year was counted as the 40th year of David, under the system then in use to number the years of reigns. The year counted as Solomon's first year began in 969 B.C. Consequently, his fourth year began in 966 B.C., while his eleventh year began in 959 B.C. The years of our present calendar are not coincident with those referred to in I Kings which began with the first month at our March-April time. Thus, Solomon's fourth year was in 966-65 B.C., while his eleventh year was in 959-58 B.C.



Page 24


"The question was posed above as to whether the major events in the earthly life of Jesus (His Incarnation the start of His public ministry, His crucifixion and death and so His whole life) was marked by occurring at one or more complete "times" (i.e. periods of 360 years) after other significant events particularly highlighted by God in scripture? This article has shown, as summarized in Figure 8, that the major events in the life of Jesus occurred one, two, three, four or five complete "times" after the most highly significant events in the Old Testament ages.

It can therefore be safely concluded that when the following texts regarding major events in the life of Jesus speak of "due time", "the fulness of the time", or "the fulness of times", then the "time(s)" referred to is one or more great times of 360 years.

"But when the fulness of the time was come.. God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law," Galatians ch. 4 v. 4

"For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. Romans ch. 5 v. 6

"That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:" Ephesians ch. 1 v. 10


Death of Abraham Five "times" 1800 years A.D. 26 The acceptable year of the Lord

Isaac Inherits1775 B.C.

The Exodus1445/44 B.C. Four "times" 1440 years The Incarnation 5/4 B.C. Christ's birth 4/3 B.C.

The Tabernacle 1444/43 B.C.

God rejected; Saul's monarchy 1051/50 B.C. Three "times" 1080 years Jesus rejected as King A.D. 30/31

Samaria attacked 724 B.C. Israel deported Two "times 720 years Christ's birth " 4/3 B.C Flight to Egypt 2/1 B.C.

Alexander the Great conquers Palestine 332/31 B.C years One "time" 360 years Jesus Crucified conquers death A.D. 30

Figure 8, Summary of the significant events in Old Testament scripture which precede major events in the in the life of Jesus by one to five complete "times".


Page 28

14. IUS ,,~" (KAIROS)

God created time, and He controls times. Moreover, God has stamped His hall-mark on history, demonstrating His absolute power, by determining that many major events in the history of His kingdom, are numbered and measured in great "times".

"... keep this commandment ... until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ: Which in his times (kairos) he shall shew, who is the blessed and only Potentate "

I Timothy ch. 6 w. 14-15

Only Almighty God could work on such a majestic scale, seeing the end from the beginning, and weaving an intricate pattern of fulfilled prophecy despite Satan's rebellion and man's disobedience. The pattern of the ages will be perfected in a unity planned before this world began. The threads are already being pulled together in a web of interwoven 360's, whose architect, centre and completion is the Lord Jesus Christ (Ephesians ch.l w. 3-4 & 9-11):

"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ ... According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world... Having made known unto us the mystery of his will which he hath purposed in himself: That in the dispensation of the fulness of times (kairos) he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:"






Wilber Smith  

 Page 3

"The seventh scroll,' she whispered, and steeled herself to touch it. It was nearly four thousand years old, written by a genius out of time with history, a man who had been dust for all these millennia, but whom she had come to know and respect as she did her own husband. His words were eternal, and they spoke to her clearly from beyond the grave, from the fields of paradise, from the presence of f the great trinity, Osiris and Isis and Horus, in whom he had believed so devoutly. As devoutly as she believed in another more recent Trinity.




Thursday July 24th

Jonathan Cainer

"todays feature by

John Michell"


"Last week we looked at the circle of the universe. Its area is 12! (known as '12 fac-torial'), which means the numbers 1 to 12 multiplied together.

By two geometric processes, involving the square and the triangle, a smaller circle was devel-oped from this. Its radius is 5,040 or 7, the first seven numbers multiplied together.

This smaller circle rep-resents the earth with its satellite, the moon. 5,040 miles is the sum of the earth's mean radius (3,960 miles) plus the radius of the moon (1,080 miles).

It is a striking fact of nature that the circles of moon and earth illustrate a primary symbol of cre-ative geometry, the 'squared circle'. It isa marriage of opposites. The circle is the symbol of eternity and heavens;the square is the material world of earth. If you can draw them together so that each has the same measure round its perimeter, you have created a squared circle.

The diameters of the earth and moon are as 11 to 3. Using these simple num-bers, draw their two circles so that they touch each other. Enclose the earth circle in a square, and from its centre draw a cir-cle through the centre of the moon. Taking 22/7 as the value or pi, you can calculate that the circumference of this circle is 44. The square containing the earth circle has a side of 11, so its perimeter is also 44. Its actual measure is 31,680 miles. To complete the diagram, draw four 'moons' at the four quarters of the earth, and add two on each side of them - making 12 in all. The eight added circles pass through the eight points where the square and the cir-cle meet.

This basic diagram, the circle squared by the earth and moon, is the key to ancient science and wisdom. It is said to be revealed from time to time. There are many refer-ences to it in ancient writings and the archi-tecture of temples. One example is in the last two chapters of the Bible, where St John describes the Heavenly City. It is the ideal geometric pattern of the universe, beauti-ful, colourful and complete in all its parts. He gave its dimensions, based on the same numbers as in our squared-circle diagram.

In the geometer's creation story that we are following, certain numbers are specially prominent. The first is 5,040 - the measure in miles of the combined radii of the earth and moon. It is the pivot of the basic numbers 1 to 10, for 1 x 2 x 3x 4x5x6x 7 = 5040, and 7 x 8 x 9 x 10 = 5040. Plato gave 5,040 as the key to the esoteric diagram behind his ideal state constitution. 5,040 symbolises the female spirit of the world that was there from the beginning.

Next week's subject is the numbers 7 and 5 and their place in the geometry of creation."




Squaring the circle

(Illustrations omitted)




John Michell







The Perimeter of the Temple

Page 78

The perimeter of the temple is 3168, Lord Jesus Christ, when the temple is measured by the foot, the most sacred unit of ancient metrology. In terms of th~ megalithic yard (2'72 feet), however, the perimeter measures 1164, because 3168 feet = 1164 MY. Yet this makes no difference to the symbolic interpretation by gematria, for 1164 is the number of another name of Christ, "Greek script omitted) Son of God.

As a geodetic or earth-measuring number, 3168 also demonstrates the antiquity and sacred origin of British metrology, for

31,680 inches = half a mile.

31,680 ft. = 6 miles.

31,680 furlongs = 3960 miles = radius of the earth.

31,680 miles = perimeter of square containing the terrestrial sphere. , 31,680 miles = circumference of circle drawn on the combined diameters of the earth and moon (10,080 miles). M

Other cosmological correspondences of 3168 are given on page 109.

The Stonehenge sarsen circle with circumference of 316,8 feet' contains a~ area of 888 square yards, 888 being the number of Jesus, which is equal to 1080 square MY. The circle contained within a square of perimeter 316,8 feet, corresponding to the bluestone circle at Stonehenge, has an area of 666 square MY. Thus the two stone circles at Stonehenge have areas of 1080 and 666 square MY, these two numbers representing the opposite poles of lunar and solar or negative and positive energy.

The number 144 or 121 is. characteristic of the New Jerusalem scheme, and 3168 demonstrates the value of..."Pi " "as 22/7in terms of this number, for 144 x 7 = 1008 and 144 x 22 = 3168

3168 in Plato's city

"A remarkable use of the number 3168 occurs in Plato's account in Book V of.Laws of the mystical dimensions of the perfect city. Throughout his work Plato makes guarded reference to a secret canon of numbers that applies universally to every aspect of human life and activity, including government, astronomy, acoustics, kinetics, plane and solid geometry and divination. Linear measure- ments, areas and volumes are obviously incommensurable, but Plato declares that there are certain numbers that link these with each other and with all phenomena capable of being measured. As an example of these numbers, the study of which Plato recommends as the most sanctifying of all pursuits, he gives 5040."




Formerly in the possession of



And now first rendered into English from a German Translation of an










Page xxvii

"A strange old woman came once to Tarquinius Superbus king of Rome,with


books, copies of the following work, which she said were the


and proffered to sell them. But the king making some scruple about the price, she went away and burnt three of them; and returning with the six, asked the same sum as be- fore. Tarquin only laughed at the humour; upon which the old wo-man left him once more; and after she had burnt three others, came again with those that were left, hut still kept to her old terms. The king began now to wonder at her obstinacy, and thinking there might be something more than ordinary in the business, sent for the Augurs to consult what was to be done. They, when their divinations were performed, soon acquainted him what a piece of impiety he had been guilty of, by refusing a treasure sent to him from heaven, and com-manded him to give whatever she demanded for the books that re- mained. The woman received her money, and delivered the writings, and only charging them by all means to keep them sacred, immediately vanished."





































Intelligent life in outer space?

Ronald N. Bracewell 1974

Page 1 Chapter 1

"Growing in size and complexity
Living things, masses of atoms, DNA, protein
Dancing a pattern ever more intricate.
Out of the cradle onto the dry land
Here it is standing
Atoms with consciousness
Matter with curiosity.
Stands at the sea
Wonders at wondering
A universe of atoms
An atom in the universe."
Richard P. Feynman











Michael White 1998

Page 97

"The first venue for Phoenix was / Page 98 / Australia, where astronomers used the Parkes 64-metre antenna and the Mopra 22-metre antenna, both in New South Wales. Because Australia was the first site, a very high proportion of the stars in the targeted group were those seen only in the Southern Hemisphere, including 650 G-Dwarf stars. In 1996, the system was taken back to the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in West Virginia, where a 40-metre dish was used to follow through the next stage of the search. The project is currently established at the largest radio telescope in the world - the 305-metre Arcibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico.
At the time of going to press, the interstellar 'airwaves' remain silent, but no one involved in the Phoenix project thought there would be much chance of immediate success. And indeed, there are some astronomers who suggest that the official SETI teams are going about things the wrong way. They argue that radio tele­scopes should be turned towards the centre of the Milky Way, where the stars are far more densely packed and where, they say, there is a far greater chance of finding something interesting. But this has associated problems, not least of which is the fact that it would be very difficult to'separate the multitude of natural signals constantly emitted from so many stellar objects. As the British astronomer Michael Rowan-Robinson says: 'Looking along the plane of the galaxy, like looking at car headlights in a traffic jam, makes it very difficult to detect one source of radio emission from another. And, if such radio emissions would also fade away over distance, we would probably detect nothing.'
An alternative argument is that we should not be looking for radio signals at all. Some researchers suggest that an advanced alien race would have dispensed with radio long ago, and may be . sending information using lasers. Others assume that the majority of surviving civilisations in the Universe would be far in advance of us and might be located by searching for the heat they gener­ate as a by-product of their energy-production systems.
The eminent American physicist, and one-time associate of Albert Einstein, Freeman Dyson, who works at the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, has proposed a scheme by which a very advanced technology could produce an almost limitless fuel / Page 99 / supply. He speculates that a sufficiently developed civilisation could harness the total energy output of their home sun by build­ing a sphere of receivers and energy converters around it. These 'Dyson spheres', as they have become known, would of course provide tremendous amounts of energy but would also radiate commensurate amounts of heat, which could be detected light­years away in the infrared region of the spectrum. Others have taken this idea even further by suggesting that civilisations perhaps millions of years in advance of our own could utilise the energy output of an entire galaxy, or even a cluster of galaxies, and that some of the many types of energy source we see in distant parts of the Universe are the waste products from such processes." This has led those involved with SETI to categorise potential civilis a­tions into three distinct classes.
Type-I cultures (which include us) are those which have developed to the point where they can exploit the natural resources of a single, home world. A Type-II civilisation would be capable of building something like Dyson spheres and processing the entire energy output of their sun. This level of development would almost certainly be associated with the ability to travel interstellar distances. Such cultures may also have developed means by which they could circumnavigate the hurdles presented by the light-speed restriction. A culture that had reached this stage of development would be thousands or perhaps tens of thousands of years in advance of us.
A Type-III civilisation would be millions of years ahead of us, / Page 100 / and would have developed the technology to utilise the entire resources of their galaxy, an ability which to us appears God-like but is actually possible within the laws of physics. It is nothing more supernatural than a consequence of a life-form starting their evolutionary development a little before us in relative, universal terms. To us, such beings would demonstrate God-like powers, but they too would have originated in a slurry of single-celled organisms on some far-distant planet. They would simply have had a longer time in which to develop.
This classification was first postulated in the 1960s, quickly becoming an internationally accepted standard. This was also the most active period of Soviet work on the search for alien civilisations, and on one occasion scientists in the USSR actually thought for a while that they had encountered a Type-III civilisation.
It was 1965, the Russians were leading the world in efforts to detect messages from ETs, and their top researcher was a man named Nikolai Kardashev (who was also the first to discuss seri­ously the idea of super-civilisations and civilisation types). One morning at the Crimea Deep Space Station, Kardashev's team detected an incredibly strong signal that was certainly of extrater­restrial origin. The interesting thing about it was not simply its power, but the fact that the signal seemed to slowly change frequency over time, sweeping through a broad band. This type of signal was quite unprecedented, and to the Soviet team almost certainly the fingerprint of a civilisation attempting to make contact.
Against his better judgement, but bowing to pressure from his colleagues, Kardashev decided to announce the finding publicly, declaring to the world's press that the source was almost certainly an extraterrestrial civilisation. Sadly, it was not to be. Within hours, scientists at Caltech in the US contacted their Russian colleagues to inform them that what they had observed fitted exactly the description of an object they too had detected a few months earlier and had been studying ever since. They called the source a 'quasar', or quasi-stellar object, and it was definitely not a signal from an advanced civilisation of any description.
Quasars are still only partially understood. Scientists know that they are tremendously powerful sources of electromagnetic radi-/ Page 101 / ation and that they are moving away from us at high speeds. They are believed to be extremely turbulent galaxies - a seething mass of matter and energy very different from our own stable Milky Way. It is suspected that at the heart of each quasar lies a black hole which traps within its intense gravitational field anything that approaches it. As matter and energy are sucked in, but before they disappear behind what physicists call the 'event horizon' (from which there is no return), they collide with other forms of matter already trapped there and emit energy that may just escape the gravitational clutches of the nearby black hole.
Quasars are fascinating and exotic stellar objects, and their close study has provided new insights into the nature of the Universe; but they are not the only strange objects to be discovered by acci­dent and mistaken for the hallmarks of extraterrestrial intelligence.
In 1967, a Ph.D. student at Cambridge University named Jocelyn Bell detected a strong, regular signal coming from deep space in the waterhole region of the spectrum. After reporting the findings to her supervisor, Anthony Hewish, they agreed they would not go public until they had investigated the signal fully. Gradually they eliminated all possible conventional sources until they realised that the signal was actually an emission from a strange object in deep space that was sending out an almost­fectly regular pulse. The object was then found to be a neutron star, or 'pulsar', the remains of a dead star that had collapsed under its own gravitational field so much that the electrons orbiting the nucleus of the atoms making up the star had been jammed into the nuclei and fused with protons to form neutrons. This super-dense matter emits pulses with such regularity that pulsars are thought to be'the most accurate clocks in th'e Universe.
Since Bell and Hewish's discovery, other regular signals have been detected which have not originated from pulsars or any ter­restrial source, but have appeared only once. A team led by Professor Michael Horowitz at Harvard University has reported thirty-seven such signals during the past ten years, all within twenty-five light-years of Earth, but because they have not been repeated they do not qualify as genuine candidates for signals from a race trying to contact us. They could, of course, be one-off / Page 102 / leakages from specific events, but we might never know, and for scientists to analyse a signal properly, they need a repeated, strong, regular pulse.
So far, the most important find was a signal detected at the Ohio State University 'Big Ear' radio telescope in August 1977. Known by SETI researchers and enthusiasts as the 'Wow' signal, after the monosyllabic exclamation written on the computer print-out by an astonished astronomer at the station, it lasted exactly thirty-seven seconds and appears to have come from the direction of Sagittarius. Although, most strikingly, the signal was a narrow-band signal precisely at the hydrogen frequency of 1420 MHz, it has not been detected even a second time, in Sagittarius or anywhere else.
So, what of the future? Is the continuing search for intelligent life in the Universe a total waste of money, as its opponents insist, or are we perhaps on the threshold of a great discovery?
In commercial terms, SETI is potentially the greatest scientific bargain ever. The cost of the project to the US government was a tenth of 1 per cent of NASA's annual budget and is now financed privately, so even the die-hard sceptics cannot claim that it is drain on the tax-payer. Furthermore, the potential gains from the success of the project would be unparalleled in human history. Quite simply, there is absolutely nothing to lose in trying.
More problematic will be maintaining the momentum of a pro­ject which, year after year, fails to deliver the goods. The argument against this is that both pulsars and quasars were dis­covered indirectly through the efforts of SETI researchers, and it is also true that improvements in techniques. and development of new types of equipment used in the search will filter down into other areas of research and then on to everyday use.
However, one difficulty for future researchers will be the growing level of terrestrial interference. Some enthusiasts argue that we are currently living through a window of opportunity in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, and that the embryonic communications revolution will soon work against our chances of detecting a pure signal from another world."

Page 99 notes

• For more than twenty-five years, astronomers have been observing sudden bursts of energy from a variety of different locations in the cosmos. They detect these bursts, which are thought to be the result of the most powerful explosions ever witnessed, by following a left-over trace of gamma rays (a form of electromagnetic radiation) that reach the Earth. There are literally hundreds of theories that attempt to explain these bursts, including the notion that they could be the result of the activities of some super-civilisation. Recently, one such burst was carefully moni­tored and found to have come from an explosion so powerful that in ten minutes the source produced more energy than the total output of our Sun during its life­time. Astronomers are actively chasing the source and the cause of this phenomenon and hope to solve the mystery after one more sustained observation of the effect. The trouble is, no one knows when or where the next one will be.








JOURNEY = 108 36 9 36 108 = JOURNEY




Arthur C. Clarke 1972



Page 205






Kenneth Walker 1943

"It would indeed be possible to shorten the message of all mystics to those three words of the Vedantist, Tat Twam Asi, Thou art the That. The description of the ‘That’ alone is variable. To the Platonist, it is the eternal idea;to the Hindu, it is Brahman; to the Buddhist, it is Purusha; and to the Sufi and the Christian, it is God.”

Page 157

"The change in the rate of perception that is a feature of higher states of consciousness is beautifully described in a remarkable passage of the Apocryphal Gospels, ‘The Book of James’

Now I, Joseph, was walking, and I walked not. And I looked
up into the air and saw the air in amazement. And I looked up into
the pole of heaven and saw it standing still, and the fowls of
the heaven without motion. And I looked upon the earth and
saw a dish set, and workmen lying by it, and their hands were in
the dish: and they that were chewing chewed not, and they that
were lifting the food lifted it not, and they that put it to their
mouth put it not thereto, but the faces of all of them were looking
upward. And behold there were sheep being driven, and they
went not forward but stood still; and the shepherd lifted his
hand to smite them with his staff, and his hand remained up. And
I looked upon the stream of the river and saw the mouths of the
kids upon the water, and they drank not. And of a sudden all
things moved onwards in their course. ”



Middle Eastern Mythology

S. H. Hooke 1963

Hebrew Mythology

Page 114

Recent Sumerian studies 5 have shown that the conception of a divine garden and of a state when sickness and death did not exist and wild animals did not prey on one another is to be found in Sumerian mythology. The description of this earthly Paradise is contained in the Sumerian poem which Dr Kramer has called the Epic of Emmerkar

The land Dilmun is a pure place, the land Dilmun is a clean place.:

The land Dilmun is a clean place, the land Dilmun is a bright place.

In Dihnun the raven uttered no cry, The kite uttered not the cry of the kite, The lion killed not,

The wolf snatched not the lamb,

Unknown was the kid-killing dog, Unknown was the grain-devouring boar ..• The sick-eyed says not 'I am sick-eyed',

The sick·headed says not 'I am sick-headed',

Its (Dilmun's) old woman says not 'I am an old woman', Its old man says not 'I am an old man',

Unbathed is the maid, no sparkling water is poured in the city,

Who rosses the river (of death?) utters no ...

The wailing priests walk not about him,

The singer utters no wail,By the side of the city he utters no lament

Later, in the Semitic editing of the Sumerian myths, Dilmun became the dwelling of the immortals, where Utnapishtim and nis wife were allowed to live after the Flood (p. 49). It l.vas apparently located at the mouth of the Persian Gulf.

According to the Sumerian myth the only thing which Dilrnun lacked was fresh water; the god Enki (or Ea) ordered Utu, the sun-god, to 'bring up fresh water from the earth to water the garden. Here we may have the source of the / Page 114 / "mysterious 'ed of which the Yahwist speaks as coming up from the ground to water the garden.

In the myth of Enki and Ninhursag it is related that the mother-goddess Ninhursag caused eight plants to grow in the garden of the gods. Enki desired to eat these plants and sent his messenger Isimud to fetch them. Enki ate them one by one, and Ninhursag in her rage pronounced the curse of death upon Enki. As the result of the curse eight of Enki's bodily organs were attacked by disease and he was at the point of death. The great gods were in dismay and Enlil was powerless to help. Ninhursag was induced to return and deal with the situation. She created eight goddesses of healing who proceeded to heal each of the diseased parts of Enki's body. One of these parts was the god's rib, and the goddess who was created to deal with the rib was named Ninti, which means 'the lady of the rib'. But the Sumerian word ti has the double meaning of 'life' as well as 'rib', so that Ninti could also mean 'the lady of life'. We have seen that in the Hebrew myth the woman who was fashioned from Adam's rib was named by him Hawwah, meaning 'Life'. Hence one of the most curious features of the Hebrew myth of Paradise clearly has its origin in this somewhat crude Sumerian myth.

Other elements in the Yahwist's form of the Paradise myth have striking parallels in various Akkadian myths. The importance of the possession of knowledge, which is always magical knowledge, is a recurring theme. We have seen that the myth of Adapa and the Gilgamesh Epic are both concerned with the search for immortality and the problem of death and the existence of disease. These and other examples which we have cited will serve to illustrate the point that the Akkadian myths were concerned with the themes which appear in the Yahwist's Paradise story."



Uncovering the Future Through the Ancient System of Casting Lots

David and Julia Line 1984

Behold this ruin! 'Twas a skull

Once of ethereal spirit full!

This narrow cell was Life's retreat;

This place was Thought's mysterious seat!

What beauteous pictures fill'd that spot,

What dreams of pleasure, long forgot!

Nor Love, nor Joy, nor Hope, nor Fear,

Has left one trace, one record here.

Lines to a skull - Antul Jane Vardill - 1816


The skull is not the most pleasant of symbols and is a constant _reminder to man of his own mortality. It represents death, = rrar.sitoriness and the vanity of earthly life. The skull, like a snail's shell, is what survives the living once the body has gone foreverFor this reason it becomes significant as a receptacle of life and thought. Leblant describes the skull as 'the semi-spherical crown of the human body' which signifies the heavens, whilst Plato· in - Timaeus declares that 'the human head is the image of the world.' Skulls were once objects employed in divination. The origin of the belief in a head discoursing after death probably has its roots in suchlegends as Arthur, Bran, Mimir and Orpheus. This idea can ilio be found in Shakespeare's Hamlet. In Norse mythology it was believed that the heavens were made from the skull of Ymir, a primaeval giant.










Children of Horus, Imset, Hapy, Duamutef, Qebhsenuf, as you spread your protection over your father Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners, so spread your protection over N.

The liver, stomach, intestines and lungs were honoured by a separate and individual treatment. These organs were placed under the protection of the four sons of Horus.





"The Windmills of Your Mind" (Les moulins de mon cœur) is a song with music by Michel Legrand, as well as Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman, and lyrics by ...

""The Windmills of Your Mind" (Les moulins de mon cœur) is a song with music by Michel Legrand, as well as Alan Bergman and Marilyn Bergman, and lyrics by the Bergmans, from the 1968 film The Thomas Crown Affair. Noel Harrison performed the song for the film score. It won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1969. (Harrison's father, the British actor Rex Harrison, had performed the previous year's Oscar-winning "Talk to the Animals"). The opening two melodic sentences were adopted from Mozart's second movement from his Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra.




Like a circle in a spiral
Like a wheel within a wheel,
Never ending on beginning,
On an ever-spinning reel
Like a snowball down a mountain,
Or a carnival balloon
Like a carousel that's turning
Running rings around the moon
Like a clock whose hands are sweeping
Past the minutes on its face
And the world is like an apple
Spinning silently in space
Like the circles that you find
In the windmills of your mind!

Like a tunnel that you follow
To a tunnel of its own
Down a hollow to a cavern
Where the sun has never shone
Like a door that keeps revolving
In a half-forgotten dream
Like the ripples from a pebble
Someone tosses in a stream.
Like a clock whose hands are sweeping
Past the minutes on its face
And the world is like an apple
Spinning silently in space
Like the circles that you find
In the windmills of your mind!

Keys that jingle in your pocket
Words that jangle in your head
Why did summer go so quickly?
Was it something that I said?
Lovers walk along a shore
And leave their footprints in the sand
Was the sound of distant drumming
Just the fingers of your hand?
Pictures hanging in a hallway
or the fragment of a song,
half-remembered names and faces
but to whom do they belong?
When you knew that it was over
Were you suddenly aware
That the autumn leaves were turning
To the colour of her hair?

Like a circle in a spiral
Like a wheel within a wheel
Never ending or beginning
On an ever-spinning reel
As the images unwind
Like the circles that you find
In the windmills of your mind




William Shakespeare (1564-1616) of Stratford-upon-Avon is England's, and the world's, most noted playwright. Shakespeare lived during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth l (1558-1603) and King James l (1603-1625), who commissioned the Authorized King James Version of the Holy Bible, published in 1611.

William was born to John and Mary Shakespeare, one of eight children. The only record available is his baptism at Holy Trinity Church on April 26, 1564. It is evident from his plays that he was moved by his studies of Greek and Latin classics. He married Anne Hathaway at age eighteen, and they had three children, Susanna, and the twins Hamnet and Judith. The death of his only son Hamnet at age eleven was devastating for Shakespeare, and proved a powerful influence on his Tragedy Hamlet.

Shakespeare's popularity rests on his perceptive understanding of human nature. The 36 plays published in the First Folio are generally divided into Tragedies, such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, MacBeth, Julius Caesar, and Antony and Cleopatra; Comedies, as The Merchant of Venice, A Midsummer's Night Dream, Love's Labour Lost, As You Like It, All's Well That Ends Well, Much Ado about Nothing, and the Taming of the Shrew; the Comedies known as Romances such as The Winter's Tale and one of his last plays The Tempest, one of the themes being the painful necessity of a father letting his daughter go; and Histories, such as King Henry V, King Richard the Second, the Life and Death of King John, All Is True (on Henry VIII), and King Henry IV, noted for the comical character Falstaff. He is also noted for his 154 Sonnets, A Lover's Complaint, and other poems.

This beautiful piece on mercy is from The Merchant of Venice, first performed in 1596 and published in 1600, when Portia speaks to Shylock in Act IV, Scene I.


The Quality of Mercy

The quality of mercy is not strained.
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest:
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.
Tis mightiest in the mightiest; it becomes
The throned monarch better than his crown.
His scepter shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to awe and majesty,
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.
But mercy is above this sceptered sway;
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings;
It is an attribute of God himself;
And earthly power doth then show like God's
When mercy seasons justice.

William Shakespeare








Michael White



" The alchemists, Jung believed had been inadvertantly tap-ping into the collective unconscious. This led them to assume / Page 99 / they were following a spiritual path to enlightenment-when they were actuafly liberatiing their subconscious minds through the use of ritual. This is not far removed from other ritualistic events- those exploited by faith healers, the ecstasy experienced by ritualistic voodoo dancers, or charismatic Christian services. Jung said of alchemy: 'The alchemical stone symbolises some­thing that can never be lost or dissolved, something eternal that some alchemists 'Compared to the mystical experience of God within one's own soul.It tusually takes prolonged suffering to burn away all the superfluous psychic elements.concealing the stone. But some profound inner experience of the Self does occur to most people at least once in a lifetime. From the psychological standpoint, a genuinely religious atiitude consists of an effort to discover this unique. experience and;gradually to keep in tune wth it (it is,relevant that the stone is itself something permanent), so that the Self becomes an inner partner towards whom one's attention is continually turned.'5 To the alchemist, the most important factor in the practice was participation of the individual experimenter in .the process of transmutation. The genuine alchemist was convinced that the emotional and spiritual characteristics of the individual experimenter was involved intiimately wth the success or failure of the experiment. And, it is this concept, more than any other aspect of, alchemy, that distinguishes it from orthodox chemistry,- the scientific discipline that began to supersede it at the end of the seventeenth Century. The alchemist placed inordinate importance upon the spiritual element.of his work and for many sceptics it was this which.pushed the subject into the realms of magic and left it forever beyond the boundaries of 'science'."





Longfield Beatty 1939

Where is the root of the Golden Flower?
In the garden of the Two Trees.
And where does the Bower bloom?
In the Purple Hall of the City of Jade.
Where is this garden?
In the seed water, the moat of the City.
When does the Bower bloom?
At the end of the far journey.
What journey?

From water to fire, earth to gold, serpent to eagle;

from father to mother, mother to son, son to father.

And the cost of the journey?
The blood of father, mother, and son.
Blood, then, is a password?
No, only the Sphinx can teach the password."



In Flanders Fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly

Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

By: Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, MD (1872-1918)










If the red slayer think he slays,

Or if the slain think he is slain

They know not well the subtle ways

I keep and pass and turn again.





Text 19

" ya enam vetti hantaram

yas cainam manyate hatam

ubhau tau na vijanito

nayam hanti na hanyate"


As it is.

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

Translation Chapter 2 Page 99/100

"Neither he who thinks the living entity the slayer nor he who thinks it slain is in knowledge, for the self slays not nor is slain."



‘who is the slayer and who is the victim. Speak’,





Fragments of an Unknown Teaching

P.D.Oupensky 1878- 1947

Page 217

" 'A man may be born, but in order to be born he must first die, and in order to die he must first awake.' "
" 'When a man awakes he can die; when he dies he can be born' "







Kahil Gibran

Page 82/83/84/85/86

"If these be vague words, then seek not to clear them.

Vague and nebulous is the beginning of all things, but not their end,

And I would have you remember me as a beginning.

Life, and all that lives, is conceived in the mist and not in the crystal.

And who knows but a crystal is mist in decay

This would I have you remember in remembering me:

That which seems most feeble and bewildered in you is the strongest and most determined.

Is it not your breath that has erected and hardened the structure of your bones?

And is it not a dream which none of you remember having dreamt, that builded your city and fashioned all there is in it?

Could you but see the tides of that breath you would cease to see all else,

And if you could hear the whispering of the dream you would hear no other sound.

But you do not see, nor do you here, and it is well.

The veil that clouds your eyes shall be lifted by the hands that wove it,

And the clay that fills your ears shall be pierced by those fingers that kneaded it.

And you shall see

And you shall hear.

Yet you shall not deplore having known blindness, nor regret having been deaf

For in that day you shall know the hidden purposes in all things,

And you shall bless darkness as you would bless light.

After saying these things he looked about him,

and he saw the pilot of his ship standing by the helm

and gazing now at the full sails and now at the distance.

And he said:

Patient, over patient, is the captain of my ship.

The wind blows, and restless are the sails;

Even the rudder begs direction;

Yet quietly my captain awaits my silence.

And these my mariners, who have heard the

choir of the greater sea, they too have heard me


Now they shall wait no longer.

I am ready

The stream has reached the sea, and once more


holds her son against her breast.

Fare you well, people of Orphalese.

This day has ended.

It is closing upon us even as the water-lily upon its own tomorrow.

What was given us here we shall keep,

And if it suffices not, then again must we come together and together

stretch our hands unto the giver.

Forget not that I shall come back to you.

A little while, and my longing shall gather dust and foam for another body.

A little while, a moment of rest upon the wind, and another woman shall bear me.

Farewell to you and the youth I have spent with you.

It was but yesterday we met in a dream.

You have sung to me in my aloneness, and I of your longings have built a tower in the sky.

But now our sleep has fled and our dream is over, and it is no longer dawn.

The noontide is upon us and our half waking has turned to fuller day, and we must part.

If in the twilight of memory we should meet once more,

we shall speak again together and you shall sing to me a deeper song.

and if our hands should meet in another dream we shall build another tower in the sky.

So saying he made a signal to the seamen,

and straightaway they weighed anchor and cast the ship loose from its moorings, and they moved eastward.

And a cry came from the people as from a single heart,

and it rose into the dusk and was carried out over the sea like a great trumpeting.

Only Almitra was silent, gazing after the ship until it had vanished into the mist.

And when all the people were dispersed she still stood alone upon the sea-wall,

remembering in her heart his saying:

A little while, a moment of rest upon the wind, and another woman shall bear me.'























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